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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
angular momentum quantum number
the quantum number that indicates the shape of the orbital
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element
Aufbau principle
an electron occupies the lowest energy orbital that can receive it
average atomic mass
the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
electromagnetic spectrum
all the forms of electromagnetic radiation
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
excited state
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it does in its ground state
the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time, usually one second
ground state
the lowest energy state of an atom
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
highest occupied level
the electron-containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number
Hund’s rule
orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom
inner-shell electrons
an electron that is not in the highest occupied energy level
atoms of the same element with different masses
law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical or physical reactions
law of definite proportions
a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or the source of the compound
law of multiple proportions
if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers
magnetic quantum number
the quantum number that indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope
noble gas configuration
an outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases by eight electrons
noble gases
a Group 18 element ( helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon)
nuclear forces
a short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, or neutron-neutron force that holds the nuclear particles together
a three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
principal quantum number
the quantum number that indicates the main energy level occupied the electron
quantum numbers
a number that specifies the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electron in orbitals
quantum theory
a mathematical description of the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
spin quantum number
the quantum number that has only two possible values +1/2 and -1/2, which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves