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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Oxidation (+)
Reduction (-)
Loss of electrons
Gain of electrons
Reducing Species
The oxidizing agent
Standard cell potential
Voltage, cell potential or electromotive force results from a difference in the elctrical potential of the two electrodes
E cell > 0
SPONTANEOUS process and teh more porsitive the E cell, the more work the cell can do
Who discovere radioactivity?
Discovery of teh electron particle with the charge of -1, mass 0
Plum pudding model of the atom
Scattering experiement that gave NUCLEAR MODEL of atoms
Using X-ray production, found the number of positive charges in the nucleus (atomic number)
Discovered the neurton particle with no charge and mass = 1 amu
Properties of Radioactive Nuclides (4)
1. Affect photographic emulsions
2. Ionize surrounding gases
3. Cause physiological effects
4. Produce fluorescence with certain compounds
5. undergo radioactive decay in a definite sequence and at a definite rate
Protons of an atom?
The atomic number
Z# - detemrines type of atom
Neutrons (except for hydrogen)
SUM of (Neutrons + Protons)= ATOMIC #
Determines the nuclide
The number of protons is equal to what?
Number of electrons
Therefore they are electrically neutral
Refere to an atom with a specific atomic number and atomic mass number
Symbol fro nuclide:

am# = XXX
element = Sy
a# = ZZ
Refer to all atoms that have the same number of protons (same a#) BUT differ in the number of neutrons
Hydrogen-1 1 proton 0 neutrons
Hydrogen-2 1 proton 1 neutrons
Hydrogen-3 1 proton 2 neutrons
The SPONTANEOUS, uncontrollable disintegration of unstable nuclei
Observedin very large nuclei to lower atomic mass number
Isomeric Transition (IT)
Occurs to lower the energy level of the nucleus
Does Not cause a change in the identity
Orbital electron is absorbed by proton with emission of X-ray
Increases neutron:proton ratio
Bombarding a given nucleus with a small "bullet" that causes an instability that resulst in teh emission of another small particle and a change in a nuclear identity
First performed by RUTHERFORD
A large nucleus absorbs a small particle that reskts in the formation of two smaller nuclei of about equal mass
The process of nuclear reactors and atomic bombs
Nuclear Reactor
Device designed to mantain and control a nuclear chain reaction
Who and When built the first functioning Nuclear Reactor?
Fermi in 1942
Small nuclei are joined to produce a single larger nucleus
The energy of the Stars
Characteristics of Radioactive atoms
A# > 83
AM# > 209
N/P ratio > 1:1
More protons than neutrons
Low binding energy per nucleon
Even/odd proton/neutron count
Magic Number Nuclei
Even Odd Nucleons
A nucleon is either a neutron or proton
TABLE .... REFER TO NOTES (slide 23)
Magic Number Nuclei
Believed to indicate nuclear shells as electrons exist in patterns of 2, 6, 8, 10, 14, 18, etc
Magic Numbers for Nucleons
2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126
Magic number nuclei
May be either protons or neutrons and these isotopes are particularly stable and abundant in nature
Mass defect (change m)
The difference between the mass of nucleous and nucleus
Binding energy
Change m converted to the force that holds the nucleus together
E = chnage m c^2
ALPHA emission
Very large nuclei emit helium to reduce mass
Causes increase in neutron:proton ratio
BETA emission (Negatron)
Like an electron decreases neutron:proton ratio
an antimatter electron - increases neurton:proton ratio
GAMMA emission
High energy photon emission - occurs to reduce energy level of neurton or proton shells
Termed Isomeric Transition
Faraday's Law
Amount of substance undergoing change at each electrode is directly proportional to the quanity of electricity that passes through the cell
Electrons are forced into an elctrochemical system and cause a reactant favored redox system to form products
When two or more elctrochemical reactions are possible at an electrode...
The one with the more positive E* will usually occur under standard conditions
Industrial preparation of sodium hydroxide, chlorine, and hydrogen is done by?
Allowing ocean water to evaporate to concentrate the chloride and then electrolyzing the brine
The more POSISTIVE the E* ...
The more the reaction tends to occur
Reacrions occur Spontaneously to form?
A weaker set of oxidizing and reducing agents
Graphite ...
Blocks as a moderator to slow nuetrons to porper penetration velocity
Graphite Blocks may be used to produce?
isotopes by Nuetron Absorption
The Carbon-Nitrogen Cycle
Requires tems in teh 10^6 degree range and pressure approaching 10^6 psi
Net Reaction:
1 4 0
4 H -> He + 2 e
1 2 +1
change E = (change m) C^2
NUCLEAR GLUE ... to hold parts together!