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250 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the physical material of the universe
elementary substances
infinitesimally small building blocks of matter
combinations of atoms
no fixed shape or volume
distinct volume independent of container but no specific shape
definite shape and volume; rigid
pure substance
matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties
substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances
compsed of 2 or more elements
combinations of two or more substances in which each suvstance retains its own chemical identity and hence its own properties
law of constant composition (a.k.a. law of definite proportions)
The observation that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same
chemical properties
descrive the way a suvstance may change or react to form other substances.
intensive properties
do not depend on the amount of the sample being examined
extensive properties
depend on the quantity of the sample and include measurements of mass and volume.
physical changes
a substance changes its physical appearance but not its composition.
chemical changes
a substance is transformed into a chemically different substance.
a measure of the amount of material in an object
Celcuis + 273.15
the amount of mass in a unit volume of a substance. (mass/volume)
dimensional analysis
aid in problem solving. carry units through all calculations.
conversion factor
fraction whose numerator and denominator are the same quantity expressed in different untis.
Law of Electrostatic Attraction
like charges repel one another, unlike charges attract
cathode rays
radiation that originates from the negative electrode, or cathode
the spontaneous emission or radiation
atomic mass unit (amu)
used to measure the masses of atoms
non-SI unit of length usded to express atomic dimensions
atoms of a given element sthat differ in the number of neutrons, and consequently in mass
atomic number
the number of protons. shown by the subscript
mass number
the total number of protons plus neutrons in an atom. shown by superscript
atomic number
the number of protons. shown by the subscript
an atom of a specific isotope
mass number
total number of protons and neutrons in an atom. shown by the superscript
elements in a column of the periodic table
metallic elements
all teh elements on the left side and in teh middle of the periodic table (except for hydrogen)
nonmetallic elements
separated by a diagonal steplike line that fruns from boron to astatine. (includes Hydrogen)
elements that lie along the line that separates metals from nonmetals and have properties that fall between the two
an assembly of two or more atoms tightly bound together
molecular compounds
compounds that are composed of molecules
empirical formulas
chemical formulas that give only the relative number of atoms of each type in a molecule
molecular formulas
chemical formulas that indicate the actual numbers and types of atoms in a molecule
a charged particle formed by removing or adding an electrom to a neutral atom
ion with a positive charge
ion with a negative charge
polyatomic ions
ions that consist of atoms joined as in a molecule, but have a net poitive or negative charge
ionic compound
a compound that contains positively charged ions and negatively charged ions
polyatomic anions containing oxygen, having names that end in -ate or -ite
polyatomic anions containing oxygen, having names that end in -ate or -ite
Law of conservation of mass
atoms are neither created nor destroyed during any chemical reaction
the examination of the quantitative nature of chemical formulas and chemical reactions
the chemical formulas on the left of the arrow
the substances produce in the reaction, on the right of the arrow
combustion reactions
rapid reactions that produce a flame
combination reactions
two or more substances react to form one product
decomposition reaction
on substance undergoes a reaction to produce two or more other substances
formula weight
the sum of the atomic weights of each atom in its chemical formula
Avogadro's number
molar mass
the mass in grams of 1 mol of substance. always numerically equal to its formula weight(in amu)
limiting reactant/reagent
the reactant that is completely consumed in a reaction
theoretical yeild
the quantity of product that is calculated to form when all of the limiting reactant reacts
percent yeild
relates the actual yield to the theoretical yield
aqueous solutions
solutions in which water is the dissolving medium
component that is present in greater quantity in a solution
substance that dissolves in the solvent
a substance whose aqueous solutions contain ions and conduct electricity
a substance that does not form ions in solution
strong electrolytes
Essentially all ionic compounds and a few molecular compounds that exist in solution almost entirely as ions
weak electrolytes
molecular compounds that produce a small concentration of ions when they dissolve
chemical eqiulibrium
a state of dynamic balance in which the rate of formation of the products of a reaction from the reactants equals the rate of formation of the reactants from the products
precipitation reactions
reactions that result in the formatino of an insoluble product
an insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution
the amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent
exchange/metathesis reactions
reactions in which positive ions and negative ions appear to exchange partners
molecular equation
an equation that shows the complete chemical formulas of the reactants and products
complete ionic equation
an equation written so that all soluble strong electrolytes shown as ions
spectator ions
appear in identical forms among both the reactants and products of a complete ionic equation
net ionic equation
when spectator ions are ommietd from a complete ionic equation
substances that are able to ionize in aqueous solutions ot form a hydrogen ion and thereby increase the concentration of H+ ions
substances that accept H+ ions
Strong acids and bases
acids and bases that are strong electrolytes

acids: HCL, HBr, HI, HClO3, HClO4, HNO3, H2SO4
bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
weak acids and bases
acids and bases that are weak electrolytes
neutralization reaction
when a solution of an acid and that of a base are mixed
loss of electrons by a substance
gain of electrons by a substance
displacement reactions
the ion in solution is displaced or replaced through oxidation of an element
moles of solute in a liter of solution
process of lowering concentrations by addiing water
standard solution
a second solution of known concentration in a titratino reaction
using a standard solution that undergoes a specific chmical reaction of known stoichiometry with the solution of unknown concentration.
the study of energy and its transformations
kinetic energy
the energy of motion
potential energy
"stored" energy that results from teh attractions and repulsions an object experiences in relation to other objects
originally defined as teh amount of energy jrequired to raise the temperatuire of 1g of water 1 degree.
the portion of the universe we single out for study
everything not included by the system
closed system
can exchanged energy but not matter with its surroundings
any push or pull exerted on an object
energy used to cause an object to move against a force
the energy transfeerred from a hotter object to a colder one
the capacity to do work or to transfer heat
First law of thermodynamics
energy can be neither created nor destroyed: energy is conserved
internal energy
the sum of all the kinetic an potential energy of all the components of the system
when a process occurs in which the system absorbs heat

(heat flows into the system from its surroundings)
a process that results in teh evolution of heat

(heat flows out of hte system and into its surroundings)
state function
the internal energy of a system
deals with the heat absorbed or released under constant pressure. a state function
enthalpy of reaction
the enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction
the mearurement of heat flow
heat capacity
the amount of heat required by an object to raise its temperature by 1 K
molar heat capacity
the heat capacity of 1 mol of a substance
specific heat
the heat capacity of 1g of a substance
bomb calorimeter
measures combustion reactions
Hess's Law
if a reaciton is carried out in a series of steps, delta H for the reaction will be equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps
enthalpy of formation
the enthalpy change associated with the formation of a compound from its constituent elements
standard enthalpy
the enthalpy change when all reactants and products are in their standard states.
standard enthalpy of formation
the change in enthalpy for the reaction that froms 1 mol of the compound from its elements, with all substances in their standard states.
fuel value
the energy released when 1 g of material is combusted
renewable energy
energy sources that are essentially inexhaustible
electronic structure
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
electromagnetic radiation
carries energy through space and is therefore also known as radiant energy
the distance between successive peaks
the number of complete wavelengths, or cycles, that pass a given point in 1 s
the smallest quantity of energy that can be emitted or absorbed as electromagnetic radiation
each energy packet behaves like a tiny particle of light
when radiation from such sources is separated into its different wavelength components
continuous spectrum
rainbow contianing light of all wavelengths
line spectrum
a spectrum containig radiation of only specific wavelengths
ground state
the lowest energy state of an atom
excited state
when the electron is in a higher energy orbit
the quantity mv for any object
matter waves
the wave characteristics of material particles
uncertainty principle
the dual nature of matter places a fundamental limitation on how precisely we can know botht hte location and the momentum of any object
wave functions
a series of mathematical functions from solving schrodinger's equation
probaility density
the square of the wave function at a agiven point in space represents the probability that the electron will be found at that location
the complete solution to schrodinger's equation for the hydrogen atom yeilding a set of wave functions and corresponding energies.
the intermediate regions where the wave function squared goes to zero
effective nuclear charge
the net positive charge attracting the electron
screening effect
the inner electrons shielding the outer electron from the full charge of the nucleus
orbitals with the same energy
electron spin
an intrinsic property of electrons
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Hund's rule
for degenerate orbitals, the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized
valence electrons
outer-shell electrons
core electrons
inner-shell electrons
transition elements/metals
fourth row of the periodic table
lanthanide elements
the 14 elements corresponding to the filling of the 4f orbitals
actinide elements
the 5f orbital elements
bonding atomic radius
an atomic radius, based on teh distances separating atoms when they are chemically bonded to one another
ionization energy
the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of the isolated gaseous atom or ion
electron affinity
the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom
alkali metals
group 1A
alkaline earth metals
group 2A
group 7A
noble gases
group 8A
Chemical bond
atoms or ions strongly attached to one another
ionic bond
electrostatic forces that exist between ions of opposite charge
covalent bond
the sharing of electrons between two atoms
metallic bonds
found in metals such as copper, iron, and aluminium. each atom is bonded to several neighboring atoms
octet rule
atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons

(exceptions: B[less than] and P[more than])
lattice energy
the energy required to completely separate a mole of a solid ionic compound into its gaseous ions
isoelectronic series
the ions possess the same number of electrons
single bond
sharing of a pair of electrons
double bond
sharing of 2 electon pairs
triple bond
sharing of 3 electron pairs. unstable
polar covalent bond
one of the atoms exerts a greater attraction for the bonding electrons than the other
the ability of an atome in a molecule to attract electrons to itself
polar molecule
a molecule in which the centers of positive and negative charge do not coincide
whenever two electrical charged of equal magnitude but opposite sign are separated by a distance
dipole moment
quantitative measure of the magnitude fo a dipole
formal charge
the charge of an atom in a molecule would have if all atoms had the same electronegativity
resonance structures
equivalent Lewis structures
bond enthalpy
the enthalpy change for the breaking of a particular bond in a mole of gaseous substance

(always positive)
bond length
the distance between the nuclei of the atoms involved in the bond
bond angles
the angels made by the lines joining the nuclei of the atoms in the molecule
VSEPR model
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion model
electron-domain geometry
the arrangement of electron domains about the central atom of a molecule
molecular geometry
the arrangement of the atoms in space
hybrid orbitals
orbitals formed by mixing two or more atomic orbitals on an atom
sigma bonds
a covalent bond in which electron density is concentrated along the internuclear axis
pi bond
a covalent bond in which electron density is concentrated above and below the line joining the bonded atoms
bonding molecular orbital
the lower-energy concentrates electron density between the two hydrogen nuclei
antibonding molecular orbital
the higher MO has very little electron density between the nuclei
sigma molecular orbitals
a molecular orbital that centers the electron density about an imaginary line passing through two nuclei
pi molecular orbitals
a molecular orbital that concentrates the electron density on opposite sides of a line that passes through the nuclei
the more unpaired electrons in a species, the strongert he force of attraction
substances with no unparied electrons are weakly repelled from a magnetic field
standard atmospheric pressure
the typical pressure at sea level
Boyle's law
the volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure
Charle's law
the volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature
Avogadro's hypothesis
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure conatin equal numbers of molecules
Avogadro's law
the volume of a fas maintained at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gase
Dalton's law of partial pressures
the total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of hte pressures that each would exert if it were present alone
partial pressure
the pressure exerted by a particular component of a mixture of gases
kinetic-molecular theory
1)Gases consist of large numbers of molecules that are in continuous, random motion.
2)The volume of all the molecules of hte gas is negligible compared to the total volume in which the gas is contained.
3)attractive and repulsive forces between gas molecules are ngligible
4)Energy can be transferred between m olecules during collisions, but the average kinetic energy of the molecules does not change with time, as long as the temperature of the gas remains constant.
5)The average kinetic energy of the molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature.
the escape of gas molecules through a tiny hole into an evacuated space
the spread of one substance throughout a space or throughout a second substance.
mean free path
the average distance traveled by a molecule between collisions
intermolecular forces
the forces that exist between molecules
dipole-dipole force
exists between neutral polar molecules
london dispersion force
intermolecular forces resulting from attractions between induced dipoles
ion-dipole force
exists between an ion and the partial charge on teh end of a polar molecule
the ease with which the charge distribution in amolecule can be distorted by an external electric field
hydrogen bonding
a special type of intermolecular attraction that exists between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond and an unshared electron pair on a nearby small electronegative ion or atom.
the resistance of liquid to flow
surface tension
the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit amount
capillary action
the rise of liquids up very narrow tubes
heat of fusion
the enthalpy change associated wiht melting a solid
heat of vaporization
the heat needed for the vaporization of a liquid
critical temperature
the highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid
critical pressure
the pressure required to bring about liquefaction at this critical temperature
dynamic equilibrium
the condition in which two opposing processes are occurring simultaneously at equal rates
liquids that evaporate readily
normal boiling point
the boliling point of a liquid at 1 atm of pressure
triple point
where the three curves intersect on a phase diagram
crystalline solid
a solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules are ordered in well-defined arrangements
amorphous solid
a solid whose particles have no orderly structure
unti cell
the smallest portion of a crystal that reproduces the structure of the entire crystal when repeated in different directions in space.
crystal lattice
an imaginary network of points on which the repeating unit of the structure of a solid may be imagined to be laid down so that the structure of the crystal is obtained.
primitive cubic
when lattice points are at the corners only
body-centered cubic
when a lattice point also occurs at the center of the unit cell
face-centered cubic
lattice points at the center of each face, as well as at each corner
hexagonal close packing
if the spheres of the third layer are placed in line with those of the first layer
cubic close packing
the spheres of the third layer are placed in slightly different positions so that they do not sit above the spheres in teh first layer
coordination number
the number of particles immediately surrounding a particle in the crystal structure.
molecular solids
consist of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular forces
covalent-network solids
consist of atoms held together in large networks or chains by covalent bonds.
ionic solids
consist of ions held together by ionic bonds
metallic solids
consist entirely of metal atoms
liquid crystal
a substance that exhibits one or more partially ordered liquid phases above the melting point of the solid form.
nematic liquid-crystalline phase
molecules are aligned along their long axes, but there is no ordering with respect to the ends of the molecules
smectic liquid-crystalline phases
molecules exhibit additional ordering beyond that of the nematic phase
cholesteric liqui-crystalline phase
molecules are aligned along their long axes as in nematic liquid crystals but are arranged in layers with the molecules in each plane twiseted slightly in relation to th e moelcules in the planes above and below
molecular substances of high moleculer mass formed by the polymerization of monomers
molecules with low molecular mass
condensatiton polymerization
polymerization in which molecules are joinded together through condensation reactions
condensatino reaction
two molecules are joined to form a larger molecule by elimination of a small molecule such as H2O
polymers formed from two different monomers
can be reshaped
thermosetting plastic
shaped through irreversible chemical processes and therefore cannot be reshaped readily
forming bonds between chains
cross-linking of natural rubber
any material that has a biomedical application
inorganic, nonmetallic, solid materials
sol-gel process
important method of forming extremely fine particles of uniform size
complex mixture of two or more materials
frictionless flow of electrons
superconducting transition temperature
temperature below which superconductivity may take place
vacuum deposition
used to form thin films of suvstances that can be vaporized or evaporated without destroying their chemical identities
involves the use of high voltage to remove materila from a source, or target
chemical-vapor deposition
surface is coasted with a volatile, stable chemical compound at a teperature below the melting point of the surface. then undergoes some form of chemical raction to form a stable, adherent coat.