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45 Cards in this Set

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What is Chemistry?
Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and its changes, both physical and chemical.
What is Organic Chemistry?
The study of most carbon-containing compounds
What are the 6 Branches of Chemistry?
Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Theoretical Chemistry
What is Inorganic Chemistry?
The study of all substances not classified as organic, mainly those compounds that do not contain carbon.
What is Physical Chemistry?
The study of the properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy.
What is Analytical Chemistry?
The identification of the components and composition of materials.
What is Biochemistry?
The study of substances and processes occuring in living things.
What is Theoretical Chemistry?
The use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties of new compounds.
What is Basic Research?
research to increase knowledge
What is Applied Science?
research to solve a problem such as a new material development or new technology
What is an atom?
smallest unit of element
What is an element?
pure substance - 1 kind of atom
example: carbon
What is a compound?
pure substance - more than 1 kind of atom
example: water/salt
What is a mixture?
not a "pure substance" - more than 1 kind of atom or molecule - easily seperated
What is a homogeneous mixture?
uniform composition
example: cleaning solutions
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
varied composition
example: granite
Physical Properties of Matter
-Extensive: depend on amount of sample
(mass, volume, length)
-Intensive: independent on amount of sample (density, melting/boiling point, conductivity,etc.)
Chemical Properties of Matter
Prediction of Reactivity:
example: a) iron reacts with oxygen to form rust
b) aluminum does not react readily to form rust
Physical Change
-any change in physical properties
examples: change in state, dissolving, condensation, no new substance produced
Chemical Change
- a new substance is always produced
Atomic Structure
Proton - positive (+) charge
Nuetron - no charge (0) charge
Electron - negative (-) charge
What is the charge of an electron cloud?
Negative
The # of protons give elements __________________ .
identity (special characteristics)
The Atomic # is equivalent to the # of ___________________ .
Protons
For stable atoms" # of protons equal __________________ .
# of electrons
Mass #
Mass of 1 atom
(Protons + Nuetrons)
What is the Periodic Chart?
Elements arranged in rows (periods) and columns (group/family)
Periodic Law
Repeating patterns of properties, columns represent similar elements
Regions of Periodic Chart
Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids, and Noble Gases
What is a metal?
an element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity
What is a Nonmetal?
is an element that is poor conductor of heat and electricity
What is a Metalliod?
is an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals
What is a Noble Gas?
A Group 18 element
example: helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon
# of naturally occuring elements
98
# of elements identified (nuclear)
118
Element Symbols to know
Groups 1,2,17,18
Periods 1,2,3,4
What is are Isotopes?
Atoms of the same element which have different number of nuetrons in nucleus
The Three Isotopes of Hydrogen
Protium, deuterium, tritium
Average Atomic Mass
mass number on periodic chart is an average of all isotopes based on abundance
Four Types of Radiation ( know symbols)
1) Alpha Particles - least dangerous
2) Beta Particles - an electron emitted from the nucleus
3) Positron Particles - electron w/ positive charge
4) Gamma Radiation - pure energy, emitted from excited nuclei
What is a half life?
a time required for 1/2 the atoms of a radioactive nuclide (unstable isotope) to decay
What is a half life?
a time required for 1/2 the atoms of a radioactive nuclide (unstable isotope) to decay
Half lifes can be measured in _________ and _____________.
microseconds, billions of years
What is a Compound?
2 or more elements combined chemically!
Law of Conservation of Mass
1) Mass of reactants = Mass of products
2) no atoms are gained or lost - only rearranged into new particles having new characteristics
3) chemical equations are BALANCED to satisfy this law