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59 Cards in this Set

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Are highly compressible, assumes, shape and volume of container. Far apart and do not interact much with each other.
Gases
Almost incompressible, assume the shape but not the volume of container. Held closer together than gas molecules but not so rigidly that the molecules cannot slide past each other
Liquids
-Assumes both the volume and shape of its container
-Is compressible
-Flows readily
-Diffusion within a ____ occurs rapidly
Gas
-Assumes the shape of the portion of the container it occupies
-Does not expand to fill container
-Is virtually incompressible
-Flows readily
-Diffusion within a _____ occurs slowly
Liquid
-Retains its own shape and volume
-Is virtually incompressible
-Does not flow
-Diffusion within a _____ occurs extremely slowly
Solid
Total disorder; much empty space; particles have complete fredom of motion; particles far apart
Gas
Disorder, particles or clusters of particles are free to move relative to each other; particles close together
Liquid
Ordered arrangement; particles are essentially in fixed positions; particles clsoe together
Crystalline solid
Converting a gas to a liquid or solide requires _______
molecules to get closer to each other, cool or compress
Converting a solid into a liquid or gas requires _____
molecuels to move further apart, heat or reduce pressure
The forces holding solids and liquids together are called _____________
Intermolecular forces
The covalent bond holding a molecule together is an _______________
Intramolecular force
The attration between molecues is an _______________
Intermolecular force
Which one is weaker
A) Intermolecular Force
B) Intramolecular Force
A) Intermolecular force
Types of Intermolecular Forces:
Hydrogen Bonding
Ion-Dipole Forces
Dipole-Dipole Forces
London Dispersion Forces
What is the strongest of all intermolecular forces?
Ion-Diple Forces
The greater the surface area available for contact, the greater the _________ forces
London Dispersion
_______________ forces between spherical molecules are lower than between sausage-like molecuels
London Dispersion
Only H-F, H-N, and H-O can ______________ bond
Hydrogen bond
What is the weakest of all intermolecular forces?
London Dispersion
In a London Dispersion Force the instant a diple is formed is called an ______________________
Instantaneous dipole
The forces between instantaneous dipoles are called _______________
London Dispersion forces
The eas with which an electron cloud can be deformed is called _________
Polarizability
The larger the molecule (the greater the number of electrons) the more _________
polarizable
London dispersion forces __________ as molecular weight increases
Increase
___________ is the resistance of a liquid to flow
Viscosity
The stronger the intermolecular forces, the higher the ____________
Viscosity
_____________= Bulk molecules (those in the liquid) are equally attracted to their neighbors
Surface tension
Surface tension molecules are only attracted _______ towards the bulk molecules. Therefore, surface molecules are packed more closely than bulk molecules
Inwards
______________ is the amount of energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid
Surface Tension
____________ forces bind molecules to each other
Cohesive
____________ foreces bind molecules to a surface
Adhesive
__________ is the shape of the liquid surface
Meniscus
When a narrow glass tube is place in water, the meniscus pulls the water up the tube
Capillary Action
Solid ----> Gas
Sublimination
Liquid -------> Gas
Vaporization
Solid -------> Liquid
Melting or Fusion
Gas -------> Solid
Deposition
Gas --------> Liquid
Condensation
Liquid ---------> Solid
Freezing
Endothermic Phase Changes
Sublimination
Vaporization
Melting or Fusion
Exothermic Phase Changes
Deposition
Condensation
Freezing
Plot of temperature change versus heat added is a ______________
Heating Curve
When a liquid is cooled below its melting point and it still remains a liquid is called
Supercooling
An ideal gas differs from a real gas in that the molecules of an idea gas ______________
Have no attraction for one another
Gases are highly _________ and occupy the full ________ of their container
Compressible; Volume
When a gas is subject to pressure, its volume ________
Decreases
P=F/A
Pressure
V1 X P1 = V2 X P2
Boyle's Law
P1/T1 = P2/T2
Charles's Law
V = constant X n
Avogadro's Law
The volume of gas at a given temperature and pressure is drectly proportional to the number of moles of gas
Avogadro's Law
The volume of a fixed quantity of gas at constant pressure increases as the temperature increase
Charles's Law
For a fixed amount of gas at constant temp, the volume of the gas varies inversely with its pressure
Boyle's Law
What does this mean?
1) 0 C or 273.15 K
2) 1 atm
3) 22.4 L of molar volume
Standard Temperature and Pressure

STP
At a given temperature and pressure, the volumes of gases which react are ratios of small whole numbers
Gay-Lussac's Law of combining volumes
PV = nRT
Ideal Gas Equation
Change in the conditions of the Gas
P1V1/n1T1 = P2V2/n2T2
M= dRT/P
Molar Mass