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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
10 ^(-1)
DECI
10 ^(-2)
CENTI
10 ^(-3)
MILLI
10 ^(-6)
MICRO
10 ^(-9)
NANO
10 ^(3)
KILO
10 ^(6)
MEGA
H 1
HYDROGEN
HE 2
HELIUM
LI 3
LITHIUM
BE 4
BERYLLIUM
B 5
BORON
C 6
CARBON
N 7
NITROGEN
O 8
OXYGEN
F 9
FLUORINE
NE 10
NEON
NA 11
SODIUM
MG 12
MAGNESIUM
AL 13
ALUMINUM
SI 14
SILICON
P 15
PHOSPHORUS
S 16
SULFUR
CL 17
CHLORINE
AR 18
ARGON
K 19
POTASSIUM
CA 20
CALCIUM
SC 21
SCANDIUM
TI 22
TITANIUM
V 23
VANADIUM
CR 24
CHROMIUM
MN 25
MANGANESE
FE 26
IRON
CO 27
COBALT
NI 28
NICKEL
CU 29
COPPER
ZN 30
ZINC
GA 31
GALLIUM
GE 32
GERMANIUM
AS 33
ARSENIC
SE 34
SELENIUM
BR 35
BROMINE
KR 36
KRYPTON
RB 37
RUBIDIUM
SN 50
TIN
PB 82
LEAD
HG 80
MERCURY
AG 47
SILVER
AU 79
GOLD
I 53
IODINE
2 TYPES OF MATTER
1. SUBSTANCES

2. MIXTURES
DEFN: SUBSTANCE
MATERIAL: CANNOT BE SEPARATED BY PHYSICAL MEANS INTO 2 OR MORE MATERIALS WITGH DIFFERENT PROPERTIES
DEFN: MIXTURE
MATTER: CAN BE SEPARATED INTO 2 OR MORE SUBSTANCES BY PHYSICAL MEANS ALONE...ALSO ALLOY
2 TYPES OF SUBSTANCES
1. ELEMENTS

2. COMPOUNDS
DEFN: ELEMENTS
ATOMS OF PARTICULAR TYPE; CANNOT BE DECOMPOSED BY CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL MEANS
DEFN: COMPOUNDS
TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS/ ATOMS/ SUBSTANCES IN CHEMICAL COMBINATION/ FIXED PROPORTION
2 TYPES OF MIXTURES
1. HOMOGENEOUS

2. HETEROGENEOUS
DEFN: HOMOGENEOUS
UNIFORM THROUGH OUT; SAME DISTRIBUTION
DEFN: HETEROGENEOUS
NON UNIFORM; CHANGES FORM ONE POINT TO ANOTHER WITHIN A SAMPLE; USU. HAS 2 OR MORE PHASES
WHAT DISTINGUISHES ONE ELEMENT FROM ANOTHER?
THE NUMBER OF PROTONS
THE RELATIONSHIP B/W PROTONS AND ELECTRONS (3)
1. P+ AND E-

2. PROTON+ELECTRON=NET CHARGE=0

3. ELECTRONS AND PROTONS ARE EQUAL IN NUMBER TO EACH OTHER
LOCATION OF PARTICLES IN ATOMS
NEUTRONS AND PROTONS ARE IN CENTER / NUCLEUS

ELECTRONS ARE IN ORBITS ON OUTSIDE OF ATOM (IN MOTION)
DEFN: CHEMISTRY
STUDY OF MATTER, ELECTRONS, AND ITS INTERACTION WITH ENVIRONMENT
RELATIVE MASS
IS = N + P

(CLOSE IN WEIGHT)

E- ARE MUCH SMALLER
DIFFERENCES B/W PROTONS & NEUTRONS AND ELECTRONS (3)
1. LOCATION IN ATOM

2. ELECTRICAL CHARGE

3. RELATIVE MASSES
DEFN: ISOTOPE
ATOMS WITH THE SAME ATOMIC # BUT DIFFERENT NEUTRON # (DONT WEIGH THE SAME)

# = (P+) + (N)
DEFN: ION
AN ATOM THAT HAS LOST OR GAINED ONE OR MORE ELECTRONS, BECOMING ELECTRICALLY CHARGED
2 TYPES OF IONS
1. CATIONS

2. ANIONS
DEFN: CATION
POSITIVELY CHARGED ION FORMED WHEN ATOM LOSES ELECTRON
DEFN: ANION
NEGATIVELY CHARGED ION FORMED WHEN ATOMS GAINS ELECTRON
19 -
F
2
19 = # OF PROTONS

- = ELECTRIC CHARGE

2 = # OF ATOMS
PHYSICAL STATES /PHASES OF MATTER (4)
1. GAS
2. LIQUID
3. SOLID
4. PLASMA
CHANGES & PROPERTIES OF MATER AND EXAMPLES (3)
1. PHYSICAL: MASS, TEMP, VOLUME

2. CHEMICAL: IRON --> RUST

3. NUCLEAR: RADIOACTIVITY
PROPERTIES OF MATTER, USED FOR AND EXAMPLES
USED MORE FOR IDENTIFYING SUBSTANCE

1. INTENSIVE: MASS INDEPENDENT
EX) TEMP DENSITY BOILING PT

2. EXTENSIVE: MASS DEPENDENT
EX) MASS SPACE VOLUME
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
BY LAVOISIER

MASS/MATTER CANT BE CHANGED OR DESTROYED

EXCEPT IN NUCLEAR PROCESS WHERE MASS IS CONVERTED TO ENERGY
ATOMIC THEORY OF MATTER
MATTER IS COMPOSED OF INDESTRUCTABLE ATOMS THAT COMBINE IN WHOLE # RATIOS TO FORM COMPOUNDS
LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS
FOR 2OR MORE COMPOUNDS OF A, THE MASSES OF B WILL BE SMALL WHOLE # RATIOS

COMPARISON B/W 2 DIFFERENT COMPOUNDS
DALTON'S ATOMIC THEORY IS USED FOR:
USED TO EXPLAIN BASIC PROPERTIES OF ATOMS AND LAW OF

CONSERVATION OF MASS

DEFINITE PROPORTIONS
5 COMPONENTS OF DALTON'S ATOMIC THEORY
1.MATTER IS COMPOSED OF ATOMS
(THEY EXIST)

2.ATOMS ARE INDESTRUCTABLE
(CONSERVATION OF MASS)

3.ALL ATOMS/MASS ARE THE SAME
FOR AN ELEMENT

4.DIFFERENT ELEMENTS HAVE DIFFERENT ATOMS/MASSES (DEFINITE PROPORTIONS)?

5.ATOMS COMBINE IN SMALL WHOLE RATIOS TO FORM COMPOUNDS (MULT PROPORTIONS?)
DERIVATIVE
ADDED ELEMENT
COMBUSTION
REACTING WITH OXYGEN AND BURNING
CHEMICAL MAKE UP OF HUMANS
CARBON OXYGEN AND NITROGEN
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SUN
HYDROGEN (80%)

HELIUM (19%)
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF EARTH CRUST (5)
OXYGEN 49.5

SILICON 25.7

ALUMINUM 7.5

IRON 4.7

CALCIUM 3.4
PRE ATOMIC THEORY CLASSES (3)
1. METALS

2. NON METALS

3. METALLOIDS
DEFN: METALS
GOOD CONDUCTORS OF HEAT/ ELECTRICITY

THE LOWER ON CHART THE MORE METALLIC

LOW ELECTRONEGATIVITY
DEFN: NON METALS
POOR CONDUCTORS, GOOD INSULATORS

LOCATED UPPER RIGHT HAND ON CHART

HIGH ELECTRONEGATIVITY
DEFN: METALLOIDS
ONLY 8

SEMI CONDUCTORS

INTERMEDIATE ELECTRONEGATIVITY
DEFN: ELE
CTRONEGATIVITY
MEASURE OF ABILITY TO ATTRACT ELECTRONS FROM OTHER SUBSTANCES

+
X INCR |UP --> +
POST ATOMIC THEORY CLASSES (4)
BASED ON DEVELOPMENT OF PERIODIC TABLE

1. ROMAN NUMERALS (MAIN GRP)
2. MIDDLE (TRANSITION ELEMENTS
/METALS)
3. LANTHENOIDS
4. ACTINOIDS
GROUPS / FAMILIES
VERTICAL COLUMN OF ELEMENTS HEADED BY ROMAN NUMERALS
REPRESENT VALENCE ELECTRON COUNT
PERIODS
ROWS
GROUP 1
ALKALAI METALS
GROUP 2
ALKALINE EARTH METALS
GROUP 8
NOBLE GASES
GROUP 7
HALOGENS
GROUP 6
CHALCOGENS
IONIC BONDING
WHEN ELEMENTS BOND WITH THOSE OF OPPOSITE ELECTRONEGATIVITY VALUES TO BECOME MORE LIKE NOBLE GASES

ONLY METAL + NON METAL
STERIC NUMBER
# OF ATOMS BONDED TO CENTRAL ATOM + # OF LONE PAIRS ON CENTRAL ATOM
DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS IN UNIVERSE
HYDROGEN 91 %

HELIUM 9 %
LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS
RATIO OF MASS IS CONSTANT

APPLIES TO A SINGLE COMPOUND