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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Disaccharide
Sucrose
Monosaccharide
Fructose
Lipid
Cholesterol
Complex carbohydrate
Starch
Nucleic acid
DNA
Amino acid
Glycine
Enzyme
Lactase
Glucose
Blood sugar
Lactose
Milk sugar
Sucrose
Table sugar
Glycogen
Stores energy for animals
Cellulose
Strengthen plant structure
Starch
Stores energy for plants
Maltose
Disaccharide with two glucose units
Maltose
Strengthen plant structure
The study of the molecules of the living organism is called
BIOCHEMISTRY.
A starch is a polymer in which the monomer units are called
GLUCOSE.
A protein is a polymer in which the monomer units are called
AMINO ACIDS
Lactase, which is able to break up the disaccharide lactose into the monosaccharides glucose and galactose, is in the class of biochemicals called
ENZYMES
Silk, a natural polymer, is made of protein which assumes a pleated sheet structure. The pleated sheet is an example of a ____ protein structure.
SECONDARY
The amino acid chains form these sheets because they are attracted to one another by ______ bonding.
Hydrogen
Proteins, like myoglobin, which fold up to form a shape more or less spherical in outline, are called _______ proteins.
Globular
The shape of the folded secondary structure of a protein is called its _____ structure.
Tertiary
although both plants and animals can store energy in the form of carbohydrates, a more efficient form of energy storage is provided by the class of chemical compounds called
Fats.
A substance which enables a reaction to occur by participating in the reaction without itself being consumed is called a
Catalyst.
A biochemical catalyst is called an
Enzyme.
The three parts of a nucleotide are a
Phosphoric Acid Molecule, a 5 Carbon Sugar Molecule, and an Organic Base Molecule with Nitrogen.
Nucleotides are the units which make up the biochemical polymers called
Nucleic Acids
In DNA molecules the sugar units are always made of the sugar called
Deoxyribose.
In RNA molecules the sugar units are always made of the sugar
Ribose.
In a DNA molecule two polymeric strands are wound together in a structure called a
Double Helix.
In DNA the base thymine must always be paired with the base
adenine.
In DNA the base cytosine must always be paired with the base
guanine.
In RNA the base uracil must always be paired with the base
adenine.
In DNA and RNA the base pairs are held together by _____ bonding
Hydrogen
One amino acid group on a protein corresponds to ___ bases on messenger RNA.
3
One gene from an organism can be transplanted into the genetic material of another organism by the use of ______ DNA technology.
Recombinant
What is an essential amino acid? Name two menu-planning strategies to ensure a diet which contains appropriate amounts of the essential amino acids.
One that the body can’t synthesize such as Lysine which must be ingested from the food we eat.

Animal protein and Beans and Soya.
Suppose that a friend tells you that milk products seem to be causing her indigestion. What explanation could you give about the likely chemical basis of this complaint? What suggestions could you give about ways to solve the problem?
She is Lactose intolerance due to the lack of the enzyme Lactase being present naturally in her body.

Ingest it from an external source such as Lactaid.
How do saturated fats differ chemically from unsaturated fats? When choosing cooking fats in the grocery store, how can you identify the saturated fats?
Saturated Fats have all singly bonded carbon-hydrogen bonds while unsaturated fats can contain doubly bonded carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Saturated fats are solids such as lard or tallow (Crisco or other Shortenings).
Why are starches considered to be preferable to sugars as a source of food energy? Why are whole grains better at giving energy than refined grains?
Starches do not stress the body’s blood sugar controlling systems like sugars do because they take longer to metabolize to glucose (blood sugar).

Whole grains contain fiber (cellulose) as well as vitamins and minerals which are good for the body.
Name a product found in grocery stores which contains a chemical compound in each of the following categories. If possible, name the chemical compound.

Lipid
Hamburger
Name a product found in grocery stores which contains a chemical compound in each of the following categories. If possible, name the chemical compound.

Enzyme
Lactaid
Name a product found in grocery stores which contains a chemical compound in each of the following categories. If possible, name the chemical compound.

Starch
Popcorn seeds
Name a product found in grocery stores which contains a chemical compound in each of the following categories. If possible, name the chemical compound.

Cellulose
Celery
Name a product found in grocery stores which contains a chemical compound in each of the following categories. If possible, name the chemical compound.

Monosaccharide
Grapes
Name a product found in grocery stores which contains a chemical compound in each of the following categories. If possible, name the chemical compound.

Disaccharide
Table sugar
Name a product found in grocery stores which contains a chemical compound in each of the following categories. If possible, name the chemical compound.

Protein
Steak
How is high-fructose corn syrup made? Why do you think it has become a popular commercial sweetener?
Corn syrup can be further treated with another type of enzyme derived from the bacterial genus Streptomyces, which rearranges the glucose molecule to form fructose. High-fructose corn syrup has become a popular sweetener for the soft drink industry because of the convenience of its liquid form and its low price. The name of fructose may also have some consumer appeal because of the "healthy" connotation of its association with fruit.
How is rayon fiber made?
Rayon is the result of cellulose fiber being chemically and structurally engineered by making use of the properties of cellulose. Cellulose is treated with alkali and carbon disulfide to yield viscose.
Compare rayon with nylon (Chap. 3) with respect to

a. The nature of the starting materials used in the process.
Cellulose vs Polyamide fibers derived from a diamine and a dicarboxylic acid, because a variety of diamines and dicarboxylic acids can be produced, there are a very large number of polyamide materials available to produce nylon fibers.
Compare rayon with nylon (Chap. 3) with respect to

The effect of the chemical structure of the polymer on the ability of the fabric to absorb water.
Rayon’s much greater ability to “hydrogen bond” makes it more absorbent by far, than Nylon.
Referring to what you have learned about the secondary structure of α-keratin, a protein found in wool, explain why it is easier to stretch a wool sweater when it is wet.
When wool is stretched, the hydrogen bonds within the helix are broken, and bonds form between chains as in silk to form a pleated sheet called β-keratin. When the wool is wet its pleated sheets can hydrogen bond with the water molecules.