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30 Cards in this Set

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condensed states
liquid or solid
intermolecular forces
forces between molecules
dipole-dipole attraction
molecules that orient themselves to maximize + and - attractions
hydrogen bonding
unusually strong dipole dipole attraction, where a hydrogen atom is bound to a N, O, or F
london forces
forces that exist between noble gases and nonpolar molecules
surface tension
resistance of a liquid to increase its surface area
capillary action
spontaneous rising of a liquid in a tube
viscosity
liquid's resistance to flow
heat of vaporization
energy required to vaporize one mole of a liquid at one atm
equilibrium vapor pressure
pressure present at equilibrium
heating curve
plot of temperature vs time for a process where energy is added at a constant rate
enthalpy of fusion
enthalpy change that occurs at the melting point when a solid melts
normal melting point
temperature at which the solid and liquid states have the same vapor pressure under conditions where the total pressure is one atm
normal boiling point
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is exactly one atm
supercooled
can be cooled below 0 celsius and 1 atm and remain a liquid
superheated
raised to a temperature above its boiling point and remain a liquid
phase diagram
way to represent the phases of a substance as a function of temperature and pressure
triple point
when the solid and liquid have identical vapor pressures
critical temperature
the temperature above which the vapor cannot be liquified no matter what pressure is applied
critical pressure
the pressure required to produce liqufication at the critical temperature
critical point
critical pressure + critical temperature
molarity
number of moles of solute per liter of solution
mass percent
percent by mass of the solute in the solution
mole fraction
the ratio of the number of moles of a given component to the total number of moles of the two components
molality
number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
normality
number of equivalents per liter of solution
enthalpy of solution
the sum of the energies used un expanding both solvent and solute and the energy of solvent-solute interaction
enthalpy of hydration
enthalpy change associated with the dispersal of a gaseous solute in water
henry's law
amount of gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional th the pressure of the gas above the solution
raoult's law
P solution = x solvent * P solvent