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46 Cards in this Set

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Barbiturates
Central Nervous System Depressants
Alcohol (ETOH)
Central Nervous System Depressants
Meprobamate
Central Nervous System Depressants
Glutethimide
Central Nervous System Depressants
Chloral hydrate
Central Nervous System Depressants
Benzodiazepines
Central Nervous System Depressants
Central Nervous System Depressants:
Intoxication
Physical:
Slurred speech
Incoordination
Unsteady gait
Drowsiness
Decreased blood pressure

Psychological-perceptual:
Disinhibition of sexual or aggressive drives
Impaired judgment
Impaired social or occupational function
Impaired attention or memory
Irritability
Central Nervous System Depressants:
Overdose Effects
Cardiovascular or respiratory depression or arrest (mostly with barbiturates)
Coma
Shock
Convulsions
Death
Central Nervous System Depressants:
Overdose Possible Treatments
If awake:
Induce vomiting.
Give activated charcoal.

Coma:
Perform gastric lavage with activated charcoal
Possibly perform hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
Administer flumazenil (Romazicon) IV.
Central Nervous System Depressants:
Withdrawal Effects
Cessation of prolonged-heavy use:
Nausea and vomiting
Tachycardia
Diaphoresis
Anxiety or irritability
Tremors in hands, fingers, eyelids
Marked insomnia
Grand mal seizures

After 5-15 years of heavy use: Delirium
Central Nervous System Depressants:
Withdrawal Possible Treatments
Perform carefully titrated detoxification with similar drug.

Note: Abrupt withdrawaf can lead to death.
For a person going through alcohol withdrawal, when will seizures most likely occur?
7 to 48 hours after the cessation of alcohol.
When will alcohol withdrawal delirium most likely to occur?
2 to 3 days after cessation or reduction of alcohol intake and last 2 to 3 days.
S&S of alcohol withdrawal delirium
anxiety
insomnia
anorexia
delirium
Autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., tachycardia, diaphoresis, elevated blood pressure)
Severe disturbance in sensorium (e.g., disorientation, clouding of consciousness)
Perceptual disturbances (e.g., visual or tactile hallucinations)
Fluctuating levels of consciousness (e.g., ranging from hyperexcitability to lethargy)
Delusions (paranoid)
Agitated behaviors
Fever (100°F to 103°F).
Cocaine
Crack
Central Nervous System Stimulants
(short-acting)
Amphetamines
Dextroamphetamine
Methamphetamine
Ice
Central Nervous System Stimulants
(long-acting)
Cocaine, Crack Intoxication
Physical:
Tachycardia
Dilated pupils
Elevated blood pressure
Nausea and vomiting
Insomnia

Psychological-perceptual:
Assaultiveness
Grandiosity
Impaired judgment
Impaired social and occupational functioning
Euphoria
Amphetamines Intoxication
Increased energy
Severe effects:
State resembling paranoid schizophrenia
Paranoia with delusions
Psychosis
Visual, auditory, and tactile hallucinations
Severe to panic levels of anxiety
Potential for violence

Note: Paranoia and ideas of reference may persist for
months afterward.
Central Nervous System Stimulants:
Overdose Effects
Respiratory distress
Ataxia
Hyperpyrexia
Convulsions
Coma
Stroke
Myocardial infarction
Death
Central Nervous System Stimulants:
Overdose Treatments
Antipsychotics
Hyperpyrexia (ambient cooling)
Convulsions (diazepam)
Respiratory distress
Cardiovascular
shock
Acidification of urine(ammonium chloride for amphetamine)
Central Nervous System Stimulants:
Withdrawal Effects
Fatigue
Depression
Agitation
Apathy
Anxiety
Sleepiness
Disortentation
Lethargy
Craving
Central Nervous System Stimulants:
Possible Withdrawal treatments
Antidepressants (desipramine)
Dopamine agonist
Bromocriptine
Opium (paregoric)
Opiates
Codeine
Opiates
Fentanyl(Sublimaze)
Opiates
Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
Opiates
Methadone (Dolophine)
Opiates
Morphine
Opiates
Meperidine (Demerol)
Opiates
Heroin
Opiates
Opiates Intoxication
Physical:
Constricted pupils
Decreased respiration
Drowsiness
Decreased blood pressure
Slurred speech
Psychomotor retardation

Psychological-perceptual:
Initial euphoria followed by dysphoria and impairment of attention, judgment, and memory.
Opiates Overdose Effects
Possible dilation of pupils due to anoxia
Respiratory depression or arrest
Coma
Shock
Convulsions
Death
Opiates Possible Overdose Treatments
Narcotic antagonist
naloxone (Narcan)
Opiates Withdrawal Effects
Yawning
Insomnia
Irritability
Runny nose(rhinorrhea)
Panic
Diaphoresis
Cramps
Nausea and vomiting
Muscle aches ("bone
pain*)
Chills
Fever
Lacrimation
Diarrhea
Opiates: Possible Withdrawal Treatments
Methadone tapering

Clonidine-naltrexone detoxification

Buprenorphine substitution
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
Hallucinogens
Psilocybin
Hallucinogens
Mescaline (peyote)
Hallucinogens
Phencyclidine
piperidine (PCP)
Hallucinogens
Hallucinogens:
LSD, Mescaline (peyote), Psilocybin intoxication
Pupil dilation
Tachycardia
Diaphoresis
Palpitations
Tremors
Incoordination
Elevated temperature, pulse, respiration.
Hallucinogens: PCP intoxication
Vertical or horizontal nystagmus
Increased blood pressure, pulse, and temperature
Ataxia
Muscle rigidity
Seizures
Blank stare
Chronic jerking
Agitated, repetitive movements
Belligerence, assaultiveness, impulsiveness
Impaired judgment, impaired social and occupational functioning
Hallucinogens:
Psychological-Perceptual Effects
Fear of going crazy
Paranoid ideas
Marked anxiety, depression
Synesthesia (e.g., colors are heard; sounds are seen)
Depersonalization Hallucinations, although
sensorium is clear Grandiosity (e.g., thinking one can fly)

Severe effects: Hallucinations, paranoia
Bizarre behavior (e.g., barking like a dog, grimacing, repetitive chanting speech)
Regressive behavior
Violent bizarre behaviors
Very labile behaviors
Hallucinogens:
LSD, Mescaline (peyote), Psilocybin Overdose effects
Psychosis
Brain damage
Death
Hallucinogens:
PCP Overdose effects
Psychosis
Possible hypertensive crisis or cardiovascular accident
Respiratory arrest
Hyperthermia
Seizures
Hallucinogens: LSD, Mescaline (peyote), Psilocybin
Possible treatment for overdose
Keep client in room with low
stimuli—minimal light, sound,
activity.
Have one person stay with client; reassure client, "talk down"
client.
Speak slowly and clearly in low voice.
Give diazepam or chloralhydrate for extreme anxiety or tension.
Hallucinogens: PCP
Possible overdose treatments
If alert:
Caution: Gastric lavage can lead to laryngeal spasms or aspiration.
Acidify urine (cranberry juice, ascorbic acid); in acute stage, ammonium chloride acidifies urine to help excrete drug from body—may continue for 10-14 days.
Put in room with minimal stimuli.
Do not attempt to talk down! Speak slowly, clearly, and in a low voice.
Administer diazepam.
Haloperidol may be used for severe behavioral disturbance (not a phenothiazine). Institute medical intervention for:
Hyperthermia
High blood pressure
Respiratory distress
Hypertension