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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the two chemical senses?
Gustation and Olfaction
What are the 4 qualities of taste?
Bitterness, sourness, sweetness, saltiness
Acronym: BSSS
Flavor (not taste) is a composite of what?
Olfaction and Gustation
About 10,000 tastebuds exist in what four areas of the mouth?
Tongue, Palate, Pharynx, and Larynx
What are Papillae?
Small protuberances of the tongue around which most receptors lie.
What qualities of taste does the tip of the tongue detect?
Sweet and Salty
What quality of taste does the side of the mouth detect?
Sourness
What quality of taste does the back of the mouth detect?
Bitterness
Gustatory information is transmitted through which cranial nerves?
7, 9, 10
Info. from the __________ part of the tongue travels through the ____________, which is branch of which cranial nerve?
anterior, chorda tympani, CN 7
What is the name of CN 7?
Facial
Info. from the _________part of the tongue sends info. through which CN?
posterior, CN 9
What is the name of CN 9?
Glossopharyngeal
Info. from the _________ and _________ is carried by which CN?
palate, epiglottis, 10
What is the name of CN 10?
Vagus
What is the first relay station in the gustatory pathway?
Nucleus of the solitary tract (in medulla)
Following this relay, what is the next station?
Ventral posteromedial nucleus (in the thalamus)
Next, the thalamic neurons send axons where?
Primary gustatory cortex (in the anterior insula-frontal operculum)
Then, info. is sent to the_____?
Secondary gustatory cortex (in orbitofrontal cortex)
Gustatory cells turn over every ____days
60
What anatomical area is activated by odorants?
Bipolar olfactory receptor neurons
Acronym: BORN
Where are the BORN located?
Olfactory mucosa
Olfactory cells turn over every _____days
60
How do the receptor cells on the olfactory cilia get stimulted?
Odorous molecules dissolve in mucus
Where do axons of olfactory receptor cells enter the skull?
Through small holes in cribriform plate
What is the purpose of free nerve endings of trigeminal contained in mucosa?
Mediation of sensations of pain that can be produced by some irritating chemicals like ammonia
Where are the olfactory bulbs?
At the base of the brain on ends of stalk-like olfactory tracts
Each olfactory cell sends how many axons into olfactory bulbs?
One
This single axon synapses with dendrites from what kind of cell?
Mitral
Axons of the mitral cells travel to the rest of the brain through what?
Olfactory tract
Where do the axons of the mitral cells terminate?
Some in ipsilateral areas; others cross and enter the olfactory nerve and terminate in the contralateral olfactory bulb
How is the primary olfactory cortex unique among sensory systems?
It receives direct input from secondary sensory neurons WITHOUT intervening thalamic relay
Olfactory tract axons project directly to the __________, ___________, and __________
Piriform cortex, amygdala, entorhinal cortex
Primary olfactory cortex projects to several seondary olfactory areas including __________, __________, __________, and __________
Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Orbitofrontal cortex, Dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus
Olfactory disturbances can be subdivided into how many groups?
4
Quantitative abnormalities in smell include what subjective experiences?
Loss or reduction of sense of smell OR increased olfactory acuity
Loss or reduction of smell is known as?
Anosmia or hyposmia
What might cause anosmia or hyposmia?
Problems at the nasal, neuroepithelial, or central level
If the anosmia or hyposmia is bilateral, what might the patient complain of?
Ageusia (loss of taste)
Increased olfactory acuity is known as?
Hyperosmia (which is very rare, if it exists)
Qualitative abnormalities in smell (the 2nd subgroup of disorders of smell), including distortions or illusions of smell, are known as what?
Dysosmia or parosmia
With what mood disorder might dysosmia or parosmia be associated?
Depressive illness
Olfactory hallucinations/delusions (the 4th subgroup of disorders of smell) originate where
At the central level
What is the most common etiology of olfactory hallucinations/delusions?
Temporal lobe seizures (uncinate fits)
The fourth subgroup of disorders of smell is knows as Higher-order loss of discrimination or ___________
Olfactory agnosia
Olfactory agnosia is characterized by what?
Perceptual aspects intact, but can't recognize