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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Matter exists in what three states?
Solid, Liquid and Gas
All forms of matter are made up of a limited number of building blocks called?
Chemical Elements
How many diffrent elements are normally present in your body?
26
96% of the body mass is made up of what major elements?
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen
What is a compound?
Give an Example
a substance that contains the atoms of two or more diffrent elements. H2O
Forces that hold together the atoms of a molecule or a compound are called?
Chemical Bonds
Name the three type of chemical bonds?
ionic, covalent and hydrogen
The forces that hold together opposite charges is what type of bond?
Ionic
This bond is the most common bond in the human body
Covalent
This is the weakest bond
Hydrogen
This bond shares electrons
Covalent
Metabolism is the ____ of all
chemical processes in the body.
Sum
Name the two principal forms of energy
Potential(stored) and Kinetic
(matter in motion)
Glucose is converted to ____ to be used as energy for the body.
ATP
Sythesis Reaction when two or more atoms are combined to form new and larger molecules In the body it is also called?
Anabolism
Decomposition reactions split up molecules into smaller atoms, ions or molecules. In the body it is called?
Catabolism
Inorganic compounds make up what percent of the human body?
60%
Inorganic compounds ususlly lack _____ and are structurally ______.
carbon, simple
In the human body inorganic compounds include ____ and many _______, ______ and ______.
water, salts, acids and bases
Organic compounds always contain _______, usually contain _______ and always have ________ bonds.
carbon, hydrogen, covalent
In the human body organic compounds include: _____, ______, ________ and ______ _____.
carbs., lipids, proteins and nucleic acid
________ is the most abundant and important inorganic compound.
Water
Name the four principle uses for water in the human body?
It is a solvent, it is used as a medium in chemical reactions, it has a high heat capacity and it is a lubricant.
What is a solvent?
In a solution the solvent dissolves another substance called a solute.
Ex:Sweat is a solution of water (solvent) plus small amounts os salts(solutes).
Solutes that dissolve easily are called? Give an example
hydrophilic
ex: sugar or salt
Solutes that are not water soluble are called? Give an example
hydrophobic
ex: animal fats and vegetable oils
When water is used as a chemical reaction in the body it is called?
hydrolysis
______ is a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions.
An acid
_______is a substance that disassociates into one or more hyroxide ions.
A base
A _____, when dissolved in water, dissociates into cations and anions, neither of which is H or OH
salt
A solutions acidity or alkalinity is expressed on the ___ ______.
pH scale
The pH scales range is from ___ to ____.
0, 14
A pH below 7 is ________.
A pH above 7 is ________.
acidic, base or alkaline
What substance has a pH of 7?
distilled water
What monitors the pH level in the human body?
RBC
Homeostasis is maintained with a Ph between ______ and
______.
7.35, 7.45
Name the two buffering systems in the human body that help to maintain homeostasis?
renal, respiratory
Organic compounds make up _____ of the human body.
40%
Carbohydrates include
______, ______, ______ and ______.
sugars, glycogen, starces and cellulose
Name the elements founds in carbohydrates.
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
The three major groups of carbohydrates are?
monosaccharidies,
disaccharrides and polysaccarrides
monosaccharidies and disaccharrides are known as
__________ __________.
simple sugars
Polysaccarides are ________ in water and do not taste ________.
insoluable, sweet
The main polysaccharide in the body is _______.
glycogen
Glycogen is stored where?
in the liver and skeletal muscles.
Starches and Cellulose are
______________.
polysaccharrides
Carbohydates represent only _____ of your total body mass.
2-3%
Cellulose cannot be ________ and is used for ________ .
digested, elimination
Lipids make up ________ of
your total body mass.
18-25%
_______ are the most plentiful and most important lipids in the body.
Triglycerides
Triglycerides consist of ____ ______ molecule and
______ ______ _____ molecules.
one glycerol, three fatty acid
___________ have a glycerol backbone and two fatty acid chains attached to the first two carbons. They make up much of the membrane that surrounds each cell
Phospholipids
_______ have four rings of carbon atoms.
Steroids
In the body the most commonly encountered five types of steroids are:
Cholesterol, sex hormones, cortisol, bile salts and vitamin d.
_________ is a type of eicosanoid that causes pain.
Prostaglandins
There is no prostoglandins in ___ ___ ___ but it is located eveywhere else in the body.
red blood cells
Proteins make up ____ of the total body mass.
12-18%
Proteins are large molecules that contain ______, _______,
_______, and _________.
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
_________ are proteins that speed up biochemical reactions.
Enzymes
One type of important protein in your body that produces antibodies is _______.
plasma
Proteins break down to
_____ _____
Amino Acids
The covalent bond joining each pair of amino acids is
called a ________ bond.
peptide
This forms the inherited
genetic material inside each
human cell
deoxyribonuclleic acid (DNA)
___________ _____ the second
type of nucleic acid, relays
instructions from the genes to
guide each cell's synthesis of
proteins from amino acids
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Name the tree parts of the nucleotides of DNA
Nitrogenous base, A Pentose sugar, A Phosphate group
Nitrogenous bases are _______,
________, __________ and
______________.
adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine.
________ are larger double ring bases. They are
____________ and __________.
Purines, adenine and guanine
________ are smaller single ring bases. They are
____________ and __________.
Pyrimidines, thymine and cytosine
Which bases always pair with one another?
adenine and thymine,
guanine and cytosine
Any change that occurs in the base sequence of a DNA strand
is called a ___________.
mutation
How do DNA and RNA differ?
RNA is single stranded, the RNA nucleotide is the pentose ribose and RNA contains the pyrimidine base uracil instaed of thymine.
When RNA makes a sample it uses _________ instead of thymine.
uracil
Two structures that need ATP are?
the brain and heart
What are the two phase of cellular respiration?
Anaerobic and Aerobic
ATP is synthesized from ADP and the energy supplied by decomposition reactions,
particularly those of ________.
glucose