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14 Cards in this Set

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element
is any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
compound
two or more elements that are chemically combined.
organic compound
most compounds that contain carbon.
Important groups of organic compounds
1. carbohydrates
2. lipids
3. proteins
4. nucleic acids
Inorganic compound
compounds that do not contain the element carbon.
carbohydrate
is an energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Sugars and starches are examples.
lipids
are energy-rich organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Fats, oils and waxes are examples.
proteins
large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
amino acid
a small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids.
enzyme
a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing.
nucleic acids
are very long organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
contain the instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life.
Two kinds--DNA and RNA.
DNA
the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
RNA
a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins.
Role of water
-most chemical reactions within cells could not take place without water.
-helps cells keep their size and shape.
-helps keep temperature of cells from changing rapidly.
-plays important role in carrying substances into and out of cells.