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13 Cards in this Set

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ACID
1. MOLECULE THAT CAN RELEASE PROTONS(H+).
2. PROTON DONOR
HYDROGEN BONDS
1. HYDOGEN FORMS A POLAR BOND WITH ANOTHER ATOM.
2. HYDROGEN HAS A SLIGHT POSITIVE CHARGE.
3. WEAK ATTRACTION FOR A SECOND ELECTRONEGATIVE ATOM.
ATOMS
1. SMALLEST UNIT OF MATTER THAT CAN UNDERGO A CHEMICAL CHANGE.
2. NUCLEUS (CENTER) CONTAINS PPROTONS(+ CHARGE) AND NEUTRONS(NO CHARGE).
HYDRPHOBIC
1.CANNOT FORM HYDRATION SPHERES.
2. NONPOLAR COVALENT BONDS.
VALENCE ELECTRONS
1. ELECTRONS IN THE OUTERMOST ORBITAL THAT PARTICIPATE IN CHEMICAL REACTION(IF THE ORBIT IS NOT COMPLETE.
2. FORM CHEMICAL BONDS.
ELECTRONS
1. OUTSIDE NUCLEUS
2. NEGATIVE CHARGE.
3. ORBIT NUCLEUS.
CHEMICAL BONDS
1. INTERACTION BETWEEN VALENCE ELECTRONS BETWEEN 2 OR MORE ATOMS.
2. NUMBER OF BONDS DETERMINED BY NUMBER OF ELECTRONS NEEDED TO COMPLETE OUTER ORBITAL.
IONIC BONDS
1.ONE OR MORE VALENCE ELECTRONS FROM AN ATOM IS COMPLETLY TRANSFERRED TO A SECOND ATOM.
2. FIRST ATOM LOSSES AN ELECTRON AND BECOMES A POSITIVELY CHARGED ATOM(CATION BECAUSE IT HAS MORE PROTONS THAN ELECTRONS).
3. THE SECOND ATOM WILL GAIN AN ELECTRON & BECOME A NEGATIVELY CHARGED ATOM(ANION).
4. CATION & ANION ATTRACT & FORM IONIC COMPOUND.
5. WEAKER THAN POLAR BONDS.
6. DISSOCIATE EASILY WHEN DISSOLVED IN WATER.

EX: NACL------NA+ CL-
COVALENT NONPOLAR BONDS
1. ATOMS SHARE VALENCE ELECTRONS.
2. ELECTRONS ARE EQUALLY DISTRIBUTED BETWEEN 2 IDENTICAL ATOMS.
3. STRONGEST BOND.

EX: H2
HYDOPHYLLIC
1. FORMATION OF HYDRATION SPHERES.
2. POLAR COVALENT BONDS.
COVALENT POLAR BOND
1. ELECTRONS ARE SHARED BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT ATOMS.
2.ELECTRONS MAY BE PULLED TOWARDS MORE ATOMS.

EX: OXYGEN,NITROGEN & PHOSPHATE PULL ATOMS TOWARD THEMSELVES.
ATOMIC MASS
SUM OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS.
HYDROGEN BONDS
1. HYDOGEN FORMS A POLAR BOND WITH ANOTHER ATOM.
2. HYDROGEN HAS A SLIGHT POSITIVE CHARGE.
3. WEAK ATTRACTION FOR A SECOND ELECTRONEGATIVE ATOM.