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42 Cards in this Set

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Medeleev
Russian chemist who first organized the periodic table
How was the periodic table first organized?
Mendeleev found that the properties of the elements repeated periodically so he ordered it based on increasing atomic masses
periodic law
law that states that the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the elements' atomic numbers
Moseley
britich scientist that organized the periodic table based on increasing atomic number
metal
type of element that is shiny, ductile, malleable, and a good conductor of heat and electricity
nonmetal
a type of element that is brittle, dull, and a poor conductor of heat and electricity
metalloid
a type of element that shares the characteristics of both metals and nonmentals, and a semiconductor
period
How many are in the periodic table?
a horzintal row of elements in the periodic table
There are 7 periods
group/family
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group have similar properties
There are 18 groups
alkali metal
on of the elements in Group 1 of the periodic table
What are the properties of alkali metals?
-very reactive (most reactive elements)
-never found uncombined in natures
-1 valence electron
-soft, easily cut
-shiny and silver
alkaline-earth metal
one of the elements in Group 2
What are the properties of alkaline-earth metals?
-found heavily in earth's crust
-very reactive
-2 valence electrons
transition metals
metals in groups 3-12
What are the properties of transition metals metals?
-many aren't vey reactive, some are
-shiny
-conduct thermal energy and electric current well
-
lanthanides
second row of Inner Transition metals that follow lanthanum
actinides
-first row of Inner Transition metals that follow actinium
-all radioactive, unstable
-elements after plutonium are made in labratories
-used im medicine: chemotherapy (gives off radiation killing cancer cells)
Trans-Uranium
the name for the elements after Plutonium which are made from Uranium by shooting protons and neutrons at it
What are the only 2 liquids in the periodic table?
-Mercury
-Bromine
halogen
one of the elements in Group 17 of the periodic table
What are the characteristics of halogens?
-violent reactions with alkali metals to form salts
-7 valence electrons
-never uncombined in nature
noble gas
one of the elements in group 18
What are the characteristics of noble gases?
-not reactive
-very stable
What are the characteristics of hydrogen and why is it above Group 1?
-it is above group 1 because it has one valence electron
-nonmetal
-very reactive
-properties dont match the ones of any group
-can gain or lose valence electron
-most abundant element in universe
chemical bonding
the bonding of 2 or more atoms to form new substances
chemical bond
the force that holds 2 or more atoms in a compoun
oclet rule
all atoms want a full outer shell (2 or 8 electrons)
ionic bond
the electrostatic attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions (opposites attract)
ion
an atom where the number f protons is different than the number of electrons
How do you name a negative ion?
You add "-ide" to the end
crystal lattice
the regular pattern in which a crystal is arranged
covalent/molecular bond
a bond formed when 2 or more atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
molecule
the chemical combination of 2 or more atoms
oxidation number (ionic charge)
number of electrions gained or lost
What are the simplest molecules?
diatomic - 2 atoms, covalently bonded so they are neutral
Contrast ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic - electrons are TRANSFERED, forming ions, between a metal and a nonmetal
Covalent - electron clouds are overlapped, so they are being shared, between nonmetals
metallic bond
bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons in the metal
Whats properties do metals have and why do they have them?
-ductility and malleability
----->since the electron swim freely in around the metal ions, the atoms can be rearranged
-conducting electricity
----->since the valence electrons of the ions are all free to move, when an electrical source is connected to the metal, electrons can easily be pushed out to make room for more; electricity is just moving electrons
-conducting heat
----->since the metals and electrons are so close, it makes it easier and faster to transfer the heat energy
-bending w/o breaking
----->since electrons are there swimming between and around the metal ions, the moving electrons maintain the metallic bonds no matter how the shape of the metal changes
Explain how a metallic bond works.
-the positive metal ions just want to lose their valence electrons
-the v. electrons dont belong to any ion in particular, but swim throughout the metal
-there are constantly negative charges cushioning 2 poitive ions and keeping them from touching
polyatomic ion
group of atoms with a charge that acts as a single charge
What are the characteristics of covalent bonds? Give some examples.
-low melting/boiling points
-simplest are diatomic molecules
-dont conduct electricity
o sugar
o wood
o hair
o wax
o grass
o plastic
What are the characteristics of ionic bonds? Give some examples.
-involve electrostatic attraction between ions
-high melting/boiling points
-crystalline solds
-dissolve in water
-conducts electricity
o salt
o alcohol
o potassium nitrate