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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When confronted with any aq soluion how can you determine the pH?
if it contains ions determine the concentrations of the individual ions, look at the ions independently, figure out what kinds of molecules are present
How do you recognize a strong acid?
how do you recognize a strong base?
How do recognize a weak acid?
a molecule or ion that can donate a proton, find equilibrium then use ka=x2/z-x
How do you recognize a weak base?
a molecule or ion that can accept a proton, solve using KB and 14+log
What is a Lewis base/ acid?
any proton acceptor must have a pair of electrons that can accept the proton so a base can donate electrons and lewis acid can accept a lone pair
what can make a metal cation acidic?
has vacant atomic orbitals so can accept lone pair
What is CO2 a good example of?
a lewis acid
What is a buffer?
Contains both a weak acid and aits own conjugate base in significant quantities
What is unique about buffers?
they resist change in pH
What is the henderson Hasselbalch equation?
pH=pKa+log(conc conjugate base/conjugate acid)
What is the predominant species if pH is above twelve?
What is the predominant species if pH is less than 2?
What is the predominant spcies if the pH is less than the pKA?
the acid
What is the predominant species if the pH is more than the pKA?
the basic
What is the the predominant species is something has a high pH?
the conjugate basde
What are the different mixtures that can be present?
the 6 types
How do solve if the major quantity is a strong acid?
How do solve if the major quantity is a strong base?
what do you do if the major quantity is a weak acid plus a major quanitity of its own conjugate base?
you have a buffer
What do you do if you only have a weak acid?
Set up equilibrium, solve for x using Ka=x2/(HA-X) then use pH
What do you do if you only have a weak base?
equilibrium, ph=14+log(OH)
How do you do a type 6?
anything else, identify the strognest base and the strongest acid and allow to react to completion (limiting reagent problem) now you will have one of the other five and can solve for x, the find all the concentrations of the minor species
What is titration?
adding base or acid
What is an equivlance point?
When the amount of titrant is equal the analynt, can have multiple points?
What is the half equivalance point?
Where the amount of titrant is equal to half the equivlance point, where ph=pKa
What are the factors that can explain solubility?
Le Chateliers
What happens if you add more product?
shift to the left, produce more solid so solubility decreases
What has a greater affect when the solubility when you have a metal hydroxide?
the effects of pH
What happens to solubility when the pH is decreased?
more acidic, decrease OH-, more soluble
What happens if you increase the pH for a metal hydroxide?
More OH- less soluble
What do you do with formation constant? Kf?
certain things will form complexes, let react all the way and then go to equilibrium, double rice
Will things always go to equilibrium?
No there might not be enough solid
what is spontaniety?
process can happen on its own although it may be slow, reverse process is nonspontaneous, can't happen unless you do something
What type of reaction is spontaneous?
one that releases energy
What does entropy measure?
degree of randomness of disorder in a system
What is the absolute molar entropy?
inherent disorder or rqandomness, S (standard state)
What happens as temp increases?
entropy increases
Why doesn't all water boil spontaneously?
have to consider the whole universe
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
the entropy of the universe is always increasing
How can we state the second law in away that considers spontaneity?
every spontaneous process must increase the entropy of the universe
What is the delta S for the universe?
delta s=delta srxn-(delta Hrxn/T)
What is gibbs freee energy?
delta G=deltaH-TdeltaS
What happens if delta S is negative?
reaction non spontaneous, delta g is positive
What happens is delta S is zero?
delta G is zero, rxn is at equilibirum
What happens if delta S is positive?
delta G is negative and the reaction is spontaneous
What assumption can we make regarding H,S?
they do not change significantly with temp BUT g does
how can delta H be determined?
through calorimetry
What is the standard state?
1 atm and 1 molar
What can we conclude about delta G at standard states?
the rxn is sponatenous if all reactants and products are @ standard states all same concentrations
What is delta G?
the rxn is spontaneous under specific actual conditions
How do you do a redox equation?
write out each half reaction, balance all elements, balance Os by addign water, balance Hs by adding H+, balance charge by addign electrons, add to cancel e-, cancel out redudnant stuff, if basic add OHs to each side to get rid of the H+s
What are acids?
substances that increase the concentration of H+ in solution
What are bases?
increase the concentration of OH- in solution
What is a brownsted Lowry acid?
a substance that can donate a proton to another substance
What is a brownsted Lowry base?
can accept a proton
What does amphiprotic mean?
capable of acting as both an acid and base
What is a conjugate base?
formed when a proton is removed from the acid
What is the conjugate base?
formed when a proton is added to the base
What is the relationship between strengths?
The stronger the acid the weaker the base,
strong acid-neglible base
weak acid-weak base
strong base-neglible acid
what does the equilibrium mixture contain?
More of the weaker acid and weaker base and less of the strogner base and stronger acid
What is autoionization of water?
water being acidic and basic
What is the equation for kw?
kw=(conc base)(conc acid)
what are the most common soluble strong acids?
HI, HNO3, HCl, HBr, HClO3, HClO4, H2SO4
What is hydrolysis?
when ions react with water to generate H+
What is a lewis base?
can donate a lone apr
What is a lewis acid?
Can accept an electron pair
What is the common ion effect?
the extent of ionization od weak electrolye is decreased by adding the solution of a strogn electrolyte that has an ion in common with the weak electrolyte
Why does a buffer resist change?
contains both species, and those species do not consume one another which is why its weak acid and weak base
What happens in strong base-strong acid titrations>?
initial ph=the initital concentration of the strong acid
between initial and equivalance-determined by the concentration of acid that has not yet been neutralized
the equivlance point-pH is 7
after-concentration of excess OH
What happens in a weak acid, strong base titration?
initital pH-calculate using the weak acid
to equivlance point-consider neutralization, next we calc the pH of the buffer pair
equivalance point- normally above seven
What is the Ksp?
the equilibrium constant indicates how soluble the solid is in water
What does the solubility product equal?
product of thhe concentrations of ions involved each raised to the power of its coefficicient
What is solubility expressed in?
What is the delta H of a rxn?
products-minus reactanta