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15 Cards in this Set

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Soaps vs. Detergents
soaps are made from natural materials (fats and oils) - reacts to form precipitate with hard water ions
D - made from synthetic materials and doesn't precipitate
unsaturated
solution containing a lower concentration of solute than a saturated solution at a given temperature
polar
not equally shared electrons
saturated
solution in which the solvent has dissolved as much solute as it can retain stably at a given temperature
solubility
quantity of a substance that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent to form a saturated solution
nonpolar
equal sharing of electrons
ion exchange
process of purifying water which may involve the exchange of hard-water ions for other ions such as sodium
What are the effects of hard water?
binds w/soap, makes soap scum
reduces ability to clean
causes "rock-like" scales to form in hot water heaters increasing time, energy and money to heat water
Name the steps of the sewage treatment
1 - Screening and grit removal
2 - primary settling
3 - aeration
4 - final settling
5 - disinfection
6 - optional further treatment
Name the steps of the municipal water treatment
1 - Source
2 - Screening
3 - Pre-chlorination
4 - flocculation
5 - settling
6 - filtration
7 - post-chlorination
8 - other treatments
supersaturated
solution containing a higher concentration of solute than a saturated solution at the given temperature
electronegativity
measure of an atom's attraction for shared electrons
Name the steps of the hydrologic cycle
1 - Evaporation
2 - Condensation
3 - Bacterial Action
4 - Filtration
ionic
one atom steals the electrons
hard water
water containing relatively high concentrations of calcium, magnesium or iron ions