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45 Cards in this Set

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Nucleic Acids
located in chromosomes; compounds that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorous (P), nitrogen and two types of nucleic acids
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; found in nucleus fo cell and does not live; hereditary info. that is passed from parentto offspring during sexual or asexual reproduction; double helix
pyrimiding
a 6-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms (nitrogen atoms tend to take up H+ from a solution, which explains the terms nitrogenous BASE
exs: of pyramidine
cytosine, thymine and uracil (u=only RNA)
purine
larger with 6-membered ring fused to a 5-membered rind; more complicated
exs: of purine
adenine and guanine
complementary bases
only adenine and thymine pair up with one another; only guanine and cytosing pair up with one another
RNA
Ribonucleic acid; found in the nucleus and cytoplams of the cell; responsible for protein synthesis (making proteins)
proteins
found in muscles; very large, complex compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen; some may contain sulfur; found in living organisms
proteins make up...
...muscles
...bones
...hormones(insulin)
...antibodies (protect us against diseases
...enzymes (allow chemical reactions to take place)
amino acids (monomer)
the building blocks of proteins; 20 common amino acids
peptide bond
the bond between two amino acids; two aa can be bonded together through dehydration synthesisp; bond that forms between the amino group of one aa and the carboxyl group of another; result-->polypeptide or dipeptide
polypeptide (polymer)
a long, thin chain of aa that forms as a result of dehydration synthesis; all proteins are made up of at least 1 polypeptide chain...hundreds of chains are coinled and folded into specific conformations
shape of proteins
globular-->globs twisted on itself
fibrous
*****SHAPE DETERMINES FUNCTION*****
Fibrous proteins
normal sequence of aa replaced w/ 1 wrong cell; secondary structure-->coil or pleat
globular proteins
tertiary structure of proteins; quaternary structure of proteins
quaternary structure of proteins ex:
collagen in body (strength lessens as age increases)
quaternary structure of proteins
multiple tertiary polypeptide chains together to form one functioning protein
tertiary structure of proteins
coil coils on itself
denaturation
if the pH, salt concentration, temperature or other parts of its environment are altered, the proteins may unravel and lose its shape; causes protein to be biologically inactive (not work at all or a little bit(properly))
enzyme
protein substances that are necessary for most of the chemical reactions that occur in living cells; speed up chemical reactions
catalyst
a substance that brings about a reaction withouot being changed itself; enzymes are organic catalysts
substrate
the substance the enzyme acts upon; usually ends in -ase
endings:
-ase=substrate
-ose=sugar
-aa=ine
-asa=enzyme
pepsin
stomach acid; usually breaks down proteins; trypsin-in small intestine and deals w/ proteins
active site
where chemical reactions occur; where enzyme and substrate meet
types of fits:
lock and ket
induced fit
cofactors
many enzymes require nonprotein helpers for catalytic activity
ex: of cofactors
zinc, iron, copper (elements); have an inorganic bond to active site of enzyme as permanent residents
coenzyme
works together with enzyme
ex: coenzyme
carrots, vitamins,Vitamin A
enzyme inhibitors
certain chemicals selectively inhibit the action of a specific enzyme; to interfere with ability to function, and doesn't function
Exs of enzyme inhibitors
poisons-->DDT (key enzymes are inhibited) in nervous system
anitbiotics-->specific enzyme in bacteria so that bacteria cannot grow and reproduce
glycosidic bond
how simple sugars are held together; a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a hydration reaction
disaccharide
the molecule formed by joining two simple sugars (monosaccharides)by dehydration synthesis
polysarrcharide
a few hundred --> a few thousand simple sugars bonded together through dehydration synthesis to create a chain of repeating subunites with gyycosidic bonds
ex: of disaccharides
maltose (malt sugar in beer)-->glucose + glucose
sucrose (table sugar)-->glucose + fructose
lactose (milk suagar)-->glucose + galactose
function of polysaccharides
provide stored energy; building material to provide structure to cell
cellulose
the polysaccharide plants produce to build strong materials (cell walls); polymer of glucose monomersl impt. form of fiber in diet to prevent constipation--> enzyme to break fown cellulose-->not possessed by humans;
ex: outer shell of corn, celery stuff that you just chew and chew; cows have bacteria in gut that helps them break down cellulose in grass
lipid
an organic compound made up of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
function of lipids
part of cell structure and serve as reserve energy-->insulin or act as protective coating (ear wax); nonpolar; less O2 atoms in lipids than carbs; hydrophobic
monosaccharide
simplest carb; "simple sugar"
chitin
the polysaccharide used by arthropods (spiders, insects --> anything with exoskeleton) for formation of exoskeleton; polymer made from monomer of glucose with added nitrogen to molecules
starch
a polymer consisting of glucose monomers that forms a helix shape is stored energy in plants (released by hydrolysis)
synthesis of fat
a molecule of fat is formed by the dehydration synthesis of 3 fatty acid molecules and 1 glucose molecule