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34 Cards in this Set

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True or False all radioactive particles come from the nucleus
True
How are beta particles formed?
during the radioactive decay of certain nuclei
which radioactive particle is easiest to block?
alpha particle
which radioactive particle travels fastest and is most penetrating?
gamma ray
which radioactive particle is the worst one, if its ingested?
alpha particle
3 ways you can protect yourself from radiation
wear a lead vest, maintain distance, concrete
what is believed to cause elements to be radioactive?
an unstable ratio of protons to neutrons
largest source of naturally occuring radiation?
radon
alpha particles are identical to ___ , while beta particles are identical to ____.
helium, electrons
list minimum of 4 peaceful uses of radiation
generates electricity
used to kill cancer
used in X-rays
used in microwaves
when radioactive nucleus transforms into new nucleus and emits radiation, process is called
transmutation
list symbols of 2 elements discovered by the Nobel proze winner Marie Curie
Ra Po
During alpha emission mass number of original isotope
decreases by 4
breeder reactor
a unit used to create radiation and produce more radioactive substances than were placed in the reactor
fission
a splitting of atoms that emits particles that give off energy
fusion
a joining of atoms that emits particles that give off energy
chain reaction
one active substance causing others to react as a result
periodic law
if you arrange elements by increasing atomic #'s you'll find periodic repetition of properties
how many resonant forms does NO3 have?
3
What is LD50?
the lethal does of radiation it would take for half the population to die
What is a unit that radiation is measured in?
REM's
What stable element do most radioactive elements eventually decay to?
lead, Pb
whats the most metallic element on the card?
francium
whats the most electronegative element on the card?
Fluorine
what's the largest element on the card?
Francium
Distinguish between ionic and covalent bonds
Ionic bonds are bonds with a strong electrical force holding them together. Covalent bonds are chemical and are formed by a strong mutual attraction.
Arrhenius definition for acid
must begin with H
Arrhenius definition for base
must end with OH
Bronsted definition for acid
proton donor
Bronsted definition for base
proton acceptor
Hunds Rule
P's fill one electron at a time then crowd in 2 e's, true for D's and F's
Most foods tend to be
acidic
most cleaning supplies tend to be
basic
What function do control rods in nuclear reactors serve?
they absorb neutrons in the reactor