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120 Cards in this Set

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What are the halogens and what form do they normally exist in?
O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
What is an ion? cation? anion?
a charged particle, positive charge, negative charge
In terms of ions what do metals tend to do vs. nonmetals?
lose electrons to form cations, nonmetals tend gain electrons to form anions
What are polyatomic ions?
consist of atoms joined as in a molecule, but they have a net positive or negative charge
What is an ionic compound?
contains both positvely and negatively charged ion s
Describe ionic compuinds vs. molecular?
ionic compounds are generally combinations of metals and nonmetals and molecular are normally nonmetals only
How do you name cations formed from metal atoms?
same as metal ie Na+=sodium
If it has different charges charge is indicated by roman numeral
What are ous and ic?
ous-smaller charge
ic-higher charge
how do you name cations formed from nonmetal atoms?
at ium
How do you name monatomic cations ?
replace end with ide ie chloride
How does one name ionic compound?
cation followed by anion name
How does one name a binary molecular compound?
the name of the element farther to left in the periodic table is always written first (except oxygen which is always last unless with fluorine) if both elements are onm the same group the higher atomic number is first, greek prefixes indicate number (mono,di, tri, tetra
What is the formula for percent composition?
% element=(moles)*(atomic weight)/total formula weight
How do you find the molecular formula form the % of elements?
assume 100g sample, use molar mass tog et moles of each element, calculate mole to mole ratio
how do you find a whole number multiple for empirical formulas?
molecular weight// empirical formula weight
how do you find grams of substance B if given substance A?
Use molar mass of A to get moles, use coefficients from balanced to equation, use moles of B, use molar massof B to get grams!
How do you find percent yield?
actual yield/ theoritical yield
theoritical product quantity that is calc ti firm when all of the limiting reactant reacts
What is an electrolyte?
A substance whose aqueous solution contains ions
What soluble ionic compunds strong or weak electrolytes?
strong!
Is NO3 compunds soluble?
yes with no exception
Are C2H3O2 compounds soluble?
yes with no exceptio
Are Cl- compounds soluble?
yes except Ag, Hg2, and Pb
Are Br- compounds soluble?
Yes, except Ag, Hg2, and Pb
Are I- compounds soluble?
yes, except Ag, Hg2, and Pb
Are SO4-compounds soluble?
yes except Sr, Ba, Hg2, and Pb
how does one write a net ionic equation?
write balanced equation, split up everything that will dissociate in H20, identify and cancel spectators
Is S soluble? CO3? PO4? OH?
No
Are alkali metals soluble (group 1A0? Ammonium?
Always
What are acids?
substances that ionize in aqueos solution for form H+ ions
What are bases?
Accept H+ ion and produce OH
What are acids/ bases that are strong electrolytes?
strong acids and bases ( dissociate completely)
What does salt mean?
any ionic compund whose cations come from a base
What is Leo Ger?
Loses electrons=oxidizes
Gains electrons=reduced
What are the rules for oxidation numbers?
any atom in its elemental form has 0, any monatomic ion the oxidation number equals the charge of the ion ion (group 1a alway +1) group 2a always 2+, group 3a always 3+, nonmetals are normally negative, the oxidation number of oxygen is normally O2, except peroxide, hydrogen is +1 unless with nonmetal which it is then +1, fluorine is always minus 1, halogens normally -1 unless with oxygen
What is molarity?
moles/volume in liters
Ammonium?
NH4+, +1
Cesium?
+1
Copper (1)
Cuprous, +1
Hydrogen
H+
Lithium
+1
Potassium
K+
Silver
+1
Sodium
+1
Barium
2+
Cadmium
2+
What are acids/ bases that are strong electrolytes?
strong acids and bases ( dissociate completely)
What does salt mean?
any ionic compund whose cations come from a base
What is Leo Ger?
Loses electrons=oxidizes
Gains electrons=reduced
What are the rules for oxidation numbers?
any atom in its elemental form has 0, any monatomic ion the oxidation number equals the charge of the ion ion (group 1a alway +1) group 2a always 2+, group 3a always 3+, nonmetals are normally negative, the oxidation number of oxygen is normally O2, except peroxide, hydrogen is +1 unless with nonmetal which it is then +1, fluorine is always minus 1, halogens normally -1 unless with oxygen
What is molarity?
moles/volume in liters
Ammonium?
NH4+, +1
Cesium?
+1
Copper (1)
Cuprous, +1
Hydrogen
H+
Lithium
+1
Potassium
K+
Silver
+1
Sodium
+1
Barium
2+
Cadmium
2+
What are acids/ bases that are strong electrolytes?
strong acids and bases ( dissociate completely)
What does salt mean?
any ionic compund whose cations come from a base
What is Leo Ger?
Loses electrons=oxidizes
Gains electrons=reduced
What are the rules for oxidation numbers?
any atom in its elemental form has 0, any monatomic ion the oxidation number equals the charge of the ion ion (group 1a alway +1) group 2a always 2+, group 3a always 3+, nonmetals are normally negative, the oxidation number of oxygen is normally O2, except peroxide, hydrogen is +1 unless with nonmetal which it is then +1, fluorine is always minus 1, halogens normally -1 unless with oxygen
What is molarity?
moles/volume in liters
Ammonium?
NH4+, +1
Cesium?
+1
Copper (1)
Cuprous, +1
Hydrogen
H+
Lithium
+1
Potassium
K+
Silver
+1
Sodium
+1
Barium
2+
Cadmium
2+
Calcium
2+
Chromium(II)
chromous 2+
Cobalt (II)
Cobaltous 2+
Copper (II)
cupric 2+
Iron (II)
ferrous 2+
Lead (II)
Plumbous 2+
Magnesium
2+
Manganese (II)
Manganous 2+
Mercury (I)
Mercurtous Hg2, 2+
Mercury (II)
Mercuric Hg, 2+
Strontium
Sr, 2+
Nickel (II)
2+
Tin (II)
Stannous, 2+
Zinc
Zn,2+
Aluminum
3+
chromium (III)
Chromic 3+
Iron (III)
Ferric 3+
Acetate
C2H3O2, -1
Bromide
-1
Chlorate
ClO3, -1
Chloride
-1
Cyanide
CN, -1
dihydrogen phosphate?
H2PO4, -1
Fluoride
F, -1
Hydride
H, -1
Hydrogen carbonate, bicarbonate ion
HCO3. -1
hydrogen sulfite, bisulfite
HSO3-
Hydroxide
OH, -1
Iodide
I-
Nitrate
NO3-
Nitrite
NO3, -1
Perchlorate
ClO4, -1
Permanganate
MnO4, -1
Thiocyanate
SCN, -1
Carbonate
CO3, -2
Chromate
CrO4,-2
Hydrogen phosphate
HPO4, 2-
Oxide
2-
Peroxide
O2, -2
Sulfate
SO4, 2-
Sulfide
S, 2-
Sulfite
SO3, 2-
Arsenate
AsO4, 3-
Phosphate
PO4, 3-
how many neutrons does H have?
0