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34 Cards in this Set

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empirical formula
simpliest whole number ration of element in the compound
CH2O = 30 g/mol

m.f = 180 g/mol

m.f = C6H12O6
molecular formula
exact # of atoms of each element in the compound
percent composition
mass of x in compound/formula weight of compound x 100%
percent yield
actual yield/theoretical yield x 100
rate
decrease in the conc. of reactant / time

or

increase in conc. of product / time
rate determining step
(rate limiting step)
slowest step in a proposed mechanism
Rate Law
for rxn aA+bB->cC+dD

rate = k[A]^x[B]^y

k=rate constant
x and y = rate order

for nearly all forward, irreversible rxn, the rate is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the reactants each raised to some power
zero order rxn
has constant rate which is independent of the reactants concentration

Rate = K (M/sec)
first order rxn
radioactive decay

order=1

has rate proportional to the concentration of one reactant

Rate=K[A] or k[B] (1/sec)
second order rxn
has rate propotional to the product of concentration of two reactant or square of the concentration of single reactant

rate=k[A]^2 or k[A][B]
reactant concentration
higher the concentration of reactant, more frequently particle came together thus higher chance of reacting.

Rate law inc as reactanc conc inc (except fo zero order)
temperature and rxn rate
inc temp = inc rxn rate due to collisoin theory

rate of rxn will approximately double for each 10C inc

higher T lead to higher K
collision theory
molecule react only if smash with at least enough for bond to be broken
catalysts (enzyme)
speed up the rate determining step

inc the rate of chem rxn by lowering the activation energy

does not being consumed
Equilibrium
foward and reverse rxn rate is same

occur in closed sys, product is not allowed to escape

molar concentration of reactants and products are not equal
equilibrium expression
aA+bB <=> cC+dD

Keq = [C]^c[D]^d / [A]^a[B]^b

= Kf/Kr
Properties of Keq
1. pure solid and pure liquid do not appear in the equillibrium constant exp

2. in gase phase rxn, the partial pressure of the gas involved can be used instead of concentration

3. gas phase and aq phase take part in Keq
Keq = very large
favors product
Keq = very small
favor reactant
Keq = 1
equal amount of reactants and products
Qc =Keq
rxn is equilibrium
Qc > Keq
rxn favors reactant
Qc < Keq
rxn favors product
La Chatelier's principle

conc and stress
1.if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium the system will shift in such a way as to relieve the applied stress

2. change in concentration
inc the concentration of a species will shift equilibrium away from the species added
La Chatelier's principle

pressure and volume
not applicable to solid and liquid

change in pressure cuase change in volume

if pressure inc, eq will shift so that the side of the exn producing fewer mole is favored

if volume inc then pressure dec then lead to the shift in the eq to where more mole is present
La Chatelier's principle

temp
A <=> B + heat (exo)

in ice bath, temp dec and drive rxn to the right to the heat loss

boiling water, temp inc and drive to the left due to inc conc of heat
Ion Product = Ksp
all the solid are dissolved

satuarated
Ion Product > Ksp
supersaturated

not everything is dissolved
see left of solute that didn't get dissloved
Ion Product <Ksp
unsaturated
difference btw aq phase and liquid phase
aq phase is water phase

liquid phase it could be any liquid like mercury
catalyst will () the rate determining step
speed up
catalyst will () the activation energey of a reaction
lower
law of mass action equation is same thing as
Keq
according to the chemical kinetic theory

reaction can occur if
1. reactant collide with proper orientation

2. reactant possess sufficient energy of colision

3. reactants are able to form a correct transistion state.