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### 34 Cards in this Set

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 empirical formula simpliest whole number ration of element in the compound CH2O = 30 g/mol m.f = 180 g/mol m.f = C6H12O6 molecular formula exact # of atoms of each element in the compound percent composition mass of x in compound/formula weight of compound x 100% percent yield actual yield/theoretical yield x 100 rate decrease in the conc. of reactant / time or increase in conc. of product / time rate determining step (rate limiting step) slowest step in a proposed mechanism Rate Law for rxn aA+bB->cC+dD rate = k[A]^x[B]^y k=rate constant x and y = rate order for nearly all forward, irreversible rxn, the rate is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the reactants each raised to some power zero order rxn has constant rate which is independent of the reactants concentration Rate = K (M/sec) first order rxn radioactive decay order=1 has rate proportional to the concentration of one reactant Rate=K[A] or k[B] (1/sec) second order rxn has rate propotional to the product of concentration of two reactant or square of the concentration of single reactant rate=k[A]^2 or k[A][B] reactant concentration higher the concentration of reactant, more frequently particle came together thus higher chance of reacting. Rate law inc as reactanc conc inc (except fo zero order) temperature and rxn rate inc temp = inc rxn rate due to collisoin theory rate of rxn will approximately double for each 10C inc higher T lead to higher K collision theory molecule react only if smash with at least enough for bond to be broken catalysts (enzyme) speed up the rate determining step inc the rate of chem rxn by lowering the activation energy does not being consumed Equilibrium foward and reverse rxn rate is same occur in closed sys, product is not allowed to escape molar concentration of reactants and products are not equal equilibrium expression aA+bB <=> cC+dD Keq = [C]^c[D]^d / [A]^a[B]^b = Kf/Kr Properties of Keq 1. pure solid and pure liquid do not appear in the equillibrium constant exp 2. in gase phase rxn, the partial pressure of the gas involved can be used instead of concentration 3. gas phase and aq phase take part in Keq Keq = very large favors product Keq = very small favor reactant Keq = 1 equal amount of reactants and products Qc =Keq rxn is equilibrium Qc > Keq rxn favors reactant Qc < Keq rxn favors product La Chatelier's principle conc and stress 1.if a stress is applied to a system at equilibrium the system will shift in such a way as to relieve the applied stress 2. change in concentration inc the concentration of a species will shift equilibrium away from the species added La Chatelier's principle pressure and volume not applicable to solid and liquid change in pressure cuase change in volume if pressure inc, eq will shift so that the side of the exn producing fewer mole is favored if volume inc then pressure dec then lead to the shift in the eq to where more mole is present La Chatelier's principle temp A <=> B + heat (exo) in ice bath, temp dec and drive rxn to the right to the heat loss boiling water, temp inc and drive to the left due to inc conc of heat Ion Product = Ksp all the solid are dissolved satuarated Ion Product > Ksp supersaturated not everything is dissolved see left of solute that didn't get dissloved Ion Product