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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
atomic number (Z)
# of proton

z=bottom
mass number (A)
number of proton and neutron

A = top
isotopes
atom with same atomic number but different mass number
(same proton different neutron)
btw isotopes same chemical characteristic but different physical characteristic
mole
the amount of a substance that contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 g of 12C

1 mole = 6.022x10^23 particles
(avagadro's number)
avagadro's number
6.022X10^23 particles
Bohr's model of the atom
protron and neutron in the center and electron movining around the center

microsocopic solar system
quantum mechanical model
P and N in the center and
electron clouds
plank's theory
E=hf = hc/ㅅ

ㅅ= wavelength
f= frequency
h=plank's constent
quantum numbers
principle quantum number (n)

azimuthal quantum number (l)

magnetic quantum number (ml)

spin quantum number (ms)
Principle quantum number (n)
energy shell, can have value of 1,2,3 ect

give overall E. level, size of e- path

as n inc =radius inc = higher energy level

전자의 에너지 상태와전자 구름모양 및 방향성을 나타냄

maximum # of e- per shell is 2n^2
which quantum number affects the energy of orbit
n and l
azimuthal quantum number (l)
subshell; values from 0 -> n-1

(s,p,d,f = 0,1,2,3)=different orbital in same subshell

large the l, higher the energy of subshell
n+l rule
smaller value of n+l then the orbital will be lower in energy
magnetic quantum number (ml)
describe the orientation of the orbital in space

if l =1 then ml is -1,0,1

ml divides subshell into individual orbital and defines the orientation of the orbital

ml does not affect the energy of the orbital only dictates the orentation thus
px, py, pz equal in energy
the maximum # of e- per shell is ?
2n^2
the maximum number of e- inany subshell is ?
4l+2
any value of l , what is possible value of ml
2l+1
spin quantum number
only one of two values
+1/2 and -1/2

no effects on energy or orbit
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
it is impossible to determine with complete accuracy both the position and the momemtum of an e- simultaneously
pauli's exclusion principle
no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers (n,l,ml,ms)
electron configuration
order of filling
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d
valence e-
the e- that are not included in the inner shell, comprise the outer shell

[Ne]3s^3 3p^3
n+l rule in configurarion
subshell with lower (n+l) fill first

if the n+l sums of two subshell are equal the lower n subshell will fill first

ex 4s, n+l=4 and 3d, n+l=5
thus 4s fill first
Hund's rule
states that with a given subshell, orbitals are filled such that there are maximum number of half filled orbitals with parrllel spins
paramagnetism
has unpaired electron and drwaned into magnetic field
diamagnetism
no unpaired electron
the periodic table trand
from left to right
-electronegativity inc
-ionization energy inc
-atomic radius dec

from bottom to top
-electronegativity inc
-ionization energy inc
-atomic radius dec
period in periodic table
row (from left to right)
column in periodic table
group of family (top-bottom)

same characteristic due to same valence e-
aufbau principle
building up principle

e-fill in the lowest energy orbital first
Atomic radius
indication of the size of the atom

metal A.R> cation(+ ion) radius

nonmetal A.R< anion (- ion) radius

A.R 크면 가장 바깥에 전자 껍질의 잔자는 쉽게 덜어저 나가 cation 이 되기쉽고

A.R 작으면 전자를 얻기쉬워 anion이 되기쉽다
electronegativity
measure of of the attraction an atom has for electron in a chemical bond.

how long an atom holds onto its e-
ionization energy
the energy required to completely remove an elctron from an tion or ion
electron affinity
the energy released when an electron is added to a gaseous atom
metal
electropositive
have tendency to lose e-

ductile
shiny solid
high M.P and density

low ionization, electronegativity

high atomic radius

thus valence e- can move freely

maileability (deformed w/o breaking)
p.t far left side
transistion metal
form cantion

XXX e- is moved from s orbital before they are removed from d orbital

ex Mn= [Ar]4s^2 3d^5
Mm^2+ =[Ar]3d^5

high M.P and B.P

formed high colored solution in ionic form
p.t in the middle
nonmetal
high ionization, electronegative

low A.R

poor conductor of heat and electricity

gain e- easily (anion)

brittle in solid state
metalloids
semi metal

have both metal and nonmetal characteristics
equation needed to calulate the energy emitted when an electron relaxed from n=3 to n=2
E= Rh(1/Ni^2=1/Nf^2)

Rh is given
equation used to determine which of the principle energy levels has an energy of -328KJ/mol
E=-Rh/n^2
what is group O
nobel gas
what is group IVB
Roman numeral represents the number of electrons what will lie outside the noble gas core configuration

letter A and B tells wheather atom is representitive or nonrepresentitive

representitive fill S and P block

non representitive fill s, d and maybe f orbtal
positive ion's will have () radii than the corresponding neutral atoms and greater the positive charge the ()the ionic radius
smaller

smaller
negative ions will have () radii than the corresponding neutral atoms and greater the negative charge () ionic radious
greater

greater
negative ion O^2-
electron 이 neutral state 보다 2개 더 많다. 2개를 빼야지 원래 neutral state가 됀다

thus atomic radi of anion is greater than neutural state
positive ion K+
neutral state 보다 e- 이 없다
하나를 더해야지 neutral state가됀다

e-을 일어버렸기때문에 neutral state 보다 radius가 더 작다
which of the following have greater atomic radius

Ca+2 and Ar
same e- number but Ca has more proton thus greater electronegativity and smaller radius.
same chemical characteristic but different physical characeristic
isotope