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### 48 Cards in this Set

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 atomic number (Z) # of proton z=bottom mass number (A) number of proton and neutron A = top isotopes atom with same atomic number but different mass number (same proton different neutron) btw isotopes same chemical characteristic but different physical characteristic mole the amount of a substance that contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in 12 g of 12C 1 mole = 6.022x10^23 particles (avagadro's number) avagadro's number 6.022X10^23 particles Bohr's model of the atom protron and neutron in the center and electron movining around the center microsocopic solar system quantum mechanical model P and N in the center and electron clouds plank's theory E=hf = hc/ㅅ ㅅ= wavelength f= frequency h=plank's constent quantum numbers principle quantum number (n) azimuthal quantum number (l) magnetic quantum number (ml) spin quantum number (ms) Principle quantum number (n) energy shell, can have value of 1,2,3 ect give overall E. level, size of e- path as n inc =radius inc = higher energy level 전자의 에너지 상태와전자 구름모양 및 방향성을 나타냄 maximum # of e- per shell is 2n^2 which quantum number affects the energy of orbit n and l azimuthal quantum number (l) subshell; values from 0 -> n-1 (s,p,d,f = 0,1,2,3)=different orbital in same subshell large the l, higher the energy of subshell n+l rule smaller value of n+l then the orbital will be lower in energy magnetic quantum number (ml) describe the orientation of the orbital in space if l =1 then ml is -1,0,1 ml divides subshell into individual orbital and defines the orientation of the orbital ml does not affect the energy of the orbital only dictates the orentation thus px, py, pz equal in energy the maximum # of e- per shell is ? 2n^2 the maximum number of e- inany subshell is ? 4l+2 any value of l , what is possible value of ml 2l+1 spin quantum number only one of two values +1/2 and -1/2 no effects on energy or orbit Heisenberg uncertainty principle it is impossible to determine with complete accuracy both the position and the momemtum of an e- simultaneously pauli's exclusion principle no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers (n,l,ml,ms) electron configuration order of filling 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d valence e- the e- that are not included in the inner shell, comprise the outer shell [Ne]3s^3 3p^3 n+l rule in configurarion subshell with lower (n+l) fill first if the n+l sums of two subshell are equal the lower n subshell will fill first ex 4s, n+l=4 and 3d, n+l=5 thus 4s fill first Hund's rule states that with a given subshell, orbitals are filled such that there are maximum number of half filled orbitals with parrllel spins paramagnetism has unpaired electron and drwaned into magnetic field diamagnetism no unpaired electron the periodic table trand from left to right -electronegativity inc -ionization energy inc -atomic radius dec from bottom to top -electronegativity inc -ionization energy inc -atomic radius dec period in periodic table row (from left to right) column in periodic table group of family (top-bottom) same characteristic due to same valence e- aufbau principle building up principle e-fill in the lowest energy orbital first Atomic radius indication of the size of the atom metal A.R> cation(+ ion) radius nonmetal A.R< anion (- ion) radius A.R 크면 가장 바깥에 전자 껍질의 잔자는 쉽게 덜어저 나가 cation 이 되기쉽고 A.R 작으면 전자를 얻기쉬워 anion이 되기쉽다 electronegativity measure of of the attraction an atom has for electron in a chemical bond. how long an atom holds onto its e- ionization energy the energy required to completely remove an elctron from an tion or ion electron affinity the energy released when an electron is added to a gaseous atom metal electropositive have tendency to lose e- ductile shiny solid high M.P and density low ionization, electronegativity high atomic radius thus valence e- can move freely maileability (deformed w/o breaking) p.t far left side transistion metal form cantion XXX e- is moved from s orbital before they are removed from d orbital ex Mn= [Ar]4s^2 3d^5 Mm^2+ =[Ar]3d^5 high M.P and B.P formed high colored solution in ionic form p.t in the middle nonmetal high ionization, electronegative low A.R poor conductor of heat and electricity gain e- easily (anion) brittle in solid state metalloids semi metal have both metal and nonmetal characteristics equation needed to calulate the energy emitted when an electron relaxed from n=3 to n=2 E= Rh(1/Ni^2=1/Nf^2) Rh is given equation used to determine which of the principle energy levels has an energy of -328KJ/mol E=-Rh/n^2 what is group O nobel gas what is group IVB Roman numeral represents the number of electrons what will lie outside the noble gas core configuration letter A and B tells wheather atom is representitive or nonrepresentitive representitive fill S and P block non representitive fill s, d and maybe f orbtal positive ion's will have () radii than the corresponding neutral atoms and greater the positive charge the ()the ionic radius smaller smaller negative ions will have () radii than the corresponding neutral atoms and greater the negative charge () ionic radious greater greater negative ion O^2- electron 이 neutral state 보다 2개 더 많다. 2개를 빼야지 원래 neutral state가 됀다 thus atomic radi of anion is greater than neutural state positive ion K+ neutral state 보다 e- 이 없다 하나를 더해야지 neutral state가됀다 e-을 일어버렸기때문에 neutral state 보다 radius가 더 작다 which of the following have greater atomic radius Ca+2 and Ar same e- number but Ca has more proton thus greater electronegativity and smaller radius. same chemical characteristic but different physical characeristic isotope