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### 27 Cards in this Set

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 Measurement & Significant Figures Tells how accurate the measuring instrument was. NUMBERS >1: All numbers are significant, except trailing zeros with NO decimal. (if there is a dec--> significant) NUMBERS <1: All numbers after first non-zero is significant. Calculating with Significant Figures MULTIPLYING and DIVIDING: Limit & round to the least number of Significant Figures. ADDING and SUBTRACTING: Limit & round to least number of decimal places. Precision vs. Accuracy Precision: How close your measurements are to eachother. Accuracy: How close your measurements are to the standard. Percent Error % ERROR= (ACCEPTED VALUE-EXPERIMENTAL VALUE/ ACCEPTED VALUE) x 100 Basic Lab Equiptment Scoopula, Sparker, Graduated cylinder, Test tube, Test tube rack, Test tube holder, Evaporating dish, Flask, Watch glass, Spatula, Wire gauze, Clay triangle, Beaker, Etc. SI Units: Length Mass Time Amount Temperature Energy Volume LENGTH- Meter MASS- Gram TIME- Second AMOUNT- Mole TEMP.- Kelvin ENERGY- Joule VOLUME- Liter Metric Prefixes kilo- 1000 deci- .1 (10^-1) centi- .01 (10^-2) milli- .001 (10^-3) micro- .000001 (10^-6) nano- .000000001 (10^-9) pico- .000000000001 (10^-12) Exponential Form ALL sigfigs will be in the MANTISSA--> when multiplying/dividing 2 exponential numbers, limit to least number of sig figs (if adding/subtracting, least decimal places) Dimensional Analysis FACTOR LABEL METHOD Measurement x Conversion Fraction (conversion fraction- ORIGINAL UNIT/ amount it is equal to in DESIRED UNIT) Types of Matter Substances & Mixtures Substances- Elements and Compounds Mixtures- Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Three Phases of Matter and Their Properties SOLID- Locked in place Definite Shape Definite Volume Retain Shape Most dense phase of an Element (except: H2O) Highest intermolecular attraction LIQUID- Atoms free to move around No definite volume Take shape of container Less dense than solids (Still high density) GAS- No definite volume No definite shape Will fill container completley Lowest density of phases Lowest intermolecular attractions *Can be affected by pressure changes Elements, Compounds & Mixtures Element- Cannot be broken down any further. 1 type of atom. Compounds- 2+ elements chemically bonded. Mixtures- Combination of Elements and/or compounds mixed together, but seperable by physical means. Components retain properties. Symbols for Various Elements TRICKY ELEMENTS: Na- Sodium K- Potassium Cu- Copper Co- Cobalt Hg- Mercury Pb- Lead Au- Gold Ag- Silver Sn- Tin Sb- Antimony As- Arsenic Heterogeneous vs. Homogeneous Mixtures Homogeneous- Solution. Uniform throughout. Heterogeneous- Suspension. NOT Uniform throughout. --> Colloids: Look uniform, but eventually settle. Ways to Seperate Mixtures FILTRATION- Used for heterogeneous mixtures. Use filter paper, etc. DISTILLATION- Use apparatus or hot container. Substance with lower BP vaporizes first and is collected. EVAPORATION-Liquid evaporates out. CHROMATOGRAPHY- Pigments seperate out on special paper. CRYSTALLIZATION- Force solids to form crystalls. Physical Vs. Chemical Properties of Matter PHYSICAL PROPERTIES- Observed with senses, determined without chemically altering the object. Shape, mass, length, odor. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES- How a substance reacts with something else. Can be observed only when something is chemically reacting. Differences Between Physical and Chemical Changes PHYSICAL CHANGES- Substance retains its chemical identity CHEMICAL CHANGE- New products are created as substance reacts. Density Problems Density= Mass/ Volume Forms of Energy Kinetic Energy & Potential Energy Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it CAN be converted from one form to another. Potential Energy Vs. Kinetic Energy KINETIC ENERGY: Associated with moving matter. POTENTIAL ENERGY: Stored in matter Heat -Properties Transfer of Energy Flows from HIGH-->LOW temperature When heat is added, motion of particles increases. When heat is taken away, motion of particles decreases. Temperature -function -Converting: K<->C -Absolute Zero Measurement of AVERAGE KINETIC ENERGY K=C+273 C=K-273 Absolute zero: No motion of particles Endothermic Changes vs. Exothermic Changes Endothermic: Require heat Exothermic: Give off heat Solid Liquid Gas Solid > Liquid> Gas: Endothermic Gas > Liquid > Solid: Exothermic Phase Changes of Matter Melting/ Fusion (s > l) Boiling/ Vaporization (l > g) Condensation (g > l) Freezing/ Solidification (l > s) Sublimation (s > g) DepositioN (g > s) Heating and Cooling Curves Study Phase Change Diagrams Heat Equations Heat energy during temp (KE) changes: q=mc^T Heat energy during phase (PE) changes: q=mHv, q=mHf