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27 Cards in this Set

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Measurement & Significant Figures
Tells how accurate the measuring instrument was.

NUMBERS >1:
All numbers are significant, except trailing zeros with NO decimal. (if there is a dec--> significant)

NUMBERS <1:
All numbers after first non-zero is significant.
Calculating with Significant Figures
MULTIPLYING and DIVIDING:
Limit & round to the least number of Significant Figures.

ADDING and SUBTRACTING:
Limit & round to least number of decimal places.
Precision vs. Accuracy
Precision: How close your measurements are to eachother.

Accuracy: How close your measurements are to the standard.
Percent Error
% ERROR= (ACCEPTED VALUE-EXPERIMENTAL VALUE/ ACCEPTED VALUE) x 100
Basic Lab Equiptment
Scoopula, Sparker, Graduated cylinder, Test tube, Test tube rack, Test tube holder, Evaporating dish, Flask, Watch glass, Spatula, Wire gauze, Clay triangle, Beaker, Etc.
SI Units:
Length
Mass
Time
Amount
Temperature
Energy
Volume
LENGTH- Meter
MASS- Gram
TIME- Second
AMOUNT- Mole
TEMP.- Kelvin
ENERGY- Joule
VOLUME- Liter
Metric Prefixes
kilo- 1000
deci- .1 (10^-1)
centi- .01 (10^-2)
milli- .001 (10^-3)
micro- .000001 (10^-6)
nano- .000000001 (10^-9)
pico- .000000000001 (10^-12)
Exponential Form
ALL sigfigs will be in the MANTISSA-->
when multiplying/dividing 2 exponential numbers, limit to least number of sig figs (if adding/subtracting, least decimal places)
Dimensional Analysis
FACTOR LABEL METHOD

Measurement x Conversion Fraction

(conversion fraction- ORIGINAL UNIT/ amount it is equal to in DESIRED UNIT)
Types of Matter
Substances & Mixtures

Substances- Elements and Compounds

Mixtures- Homogeneous and Heterogeneous
Three Phases of Matter and Their Properties
SOLID- Locked in place
Definite Shape
Definite Volume
Retain Shape
Most dense phase of an Element (except: H2O)
Highest intermolecular attraction

LIQUID- Atoms free to move around
No definite volume
Take shape of container
Less dense than solids (Still high density)

GAS- No definite volume
No definite shape
Will fill container completley
Lowest density of phases
Lowest intermolecular attractions
*Can be affected by pressure changes
Elements, Compounds & Mixtures
Element- Cannot be broken down any further. 1 type of atom.

Compounds- 2+ elements chemically bonded.

Mixtures- Combination of Elements and/or compounds mixed together, but seperable by physical means. Components retain properties.
Symbols for Various Elements
TRICKY ELEMENTS:
Na- Sodium
K- Potassium
Cu- Copper
Co- Cobalt
Hg- Mercury
Pb- Lead
Au- Gold
Ag- Silver
Sn- Tin
Sb- Antimony
As- Arsenic
Heterogeneous vs. Homogeneous Mixtures
Homogeneous- Solution. Uniform throughout.

Heterogeneous- Suspension. NOT Uniform throughout.
--> Colloids: Look uniform, but eventually settle.
Ways to Seperate Mixtures
FILTRATION- Used for heterogeneous mixtures. Use filter paper, etc.

DISTILLATION- Use apparatus or hot container. Substance with lower BP vaporizes first and is collected.

EVAPORATION-Liquid evaporates out.

CHROMATOGRAPHY- Pigments seperate out on special paper.

CRYSTALLIZATION- Force solids to form crystalls.
Physical Vs. Chemical Properties of Matter
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES- Observed with senses, determined without chemically altering the object. Shape, mass, length, odor.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES- How a substance reacts with something else. Can be observed only when something is chemically reacting.
Differences Between Physical and Chemical Changes
PHYSICAL CHANGES- Substance retains its chemical identity

CHEMICAL CHANGE- New products are created as substance reacts.
Density Problems
Density= Mass/ Volume
Forms of Energy
Kinetic Energy & Potential Energy
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it CAN be converted from one form to another.
Potential Energy Vs. Kinetic Energy
KINETIC ENERGY: Associated with moving matter.

POTENTIAL ENERGY: Stored in matter
Heat
-Properties
Transfer of Energy

Flows from HIGH-->LOW temperature

When heat is added, motion of particles increases. When heat is taken away, motion of particles decreases.
Temperature
-function
-Converting: K<->C
-Absolute Zero
Measurement of AVERAGE KINETIC ENERGY

K=C+273
C=K-273

Absolute zero: No motion of particles
Endothermic Changes vs. Exothermic Changes
Endothermic: Require heat
Exothermic: Give off heat

Solid Liquid Gas

Solid > Liquid> Gas:
Endothermic

Gas > Liquid > Solid:
Exothermic
Phase Changes of Matter
Melting/ Fusion (s > l)
Boiling/ Vaporization (l > g)
Condensation (g > l)
Freezing/ Solidification (l > s)
Sublimation (s > g)
DepositioN (g > s)
Heating and Cooling Curves
Study Phase Change Diagrams
Heat Equations
Heat energy during temp (KE) changes:
q=mc^T
Heat energy during phase (PE) changes:
q=mHv, q=mHf