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34 Cards in this Set

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isomers
compounds that have the same simple (chem) formula but different 3-D structure
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
cellulose
glucose polymer
forms the cell walls of plants and gices structural support
glucose hooked together in a net design
atom
smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element
lipids
organic compounds that have a large proportion of of C-H bonds and less oxygen than carbnohydrates
fats and oils
insoluble in water
compound
is a substance that is composed of atoms of different elements chemically combined
mixture
combination of substances in which the individual substances keep their own properties
molecule
group of atoms held together by covalent bonds

has no overall charge
solution
a mixture
in which one or more substances are evenly spread out in another substance
nucleus
center of an atom
starch
highly branched chains of glucose units
used as food storage by plants
covalent bond
sharing electrons
monosaccharide
simplest type of carbohydrate
simple sugar
ex- glucose, fructose
peptide bond
this is the covalent bond formed between amono acids
polysaccharides
many monosaccharides together
the largest carbohydrate units
ex- starch, cellulose, glycogen
ionic bond
attractive force between oppositely charged ions
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
master copy of an organism;s information code
ion
atom or molecule that that gains electrons (- charge)
or
looses electrons (+ charge)
polymer
a large molecule formed when smaller molecules bond together, usually in long chains
metabolism
all the chemical reactions in an organism that

break down and build molecules
nucleotides
these polymers are the smaller subunits that make up the nucleic acids
glycogen
animals store their food in this form
it is a glucose polymer
more branched than starch
nucleic acid
complex macronucleotide that stores information in cells in the form of a code
RNA
ribonucleic acid
forms a copy of DNA for use in protein synthesis
carbohydrate
organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (HOC)
2:1:1 ratio
acid
any substance that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in water
pH 0-6
enzyme
a protein that speeds up a chemical reaction
polar molecule
a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge

has a positive and a negative end
base
any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in water
pH 8-14
disaccharide
monosacch + monosacch=polysacch
two monosaccharides together
two sugar carbohydrate
ex- sucrose= table sugar
pH
measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
0-14
amino acids
the basic building blocks of proteins
20 types
variety of shapes and sizes
protein
large complex polymer composed of HONC and sometimes sulfur
essential to all life
they build structure and cary out cell metabolism
held together by hydrogen bonds
hydrogen bond
weak bond
formed by the attraction of opposite charges between hydrogen and other atoms
helps hold togetherlarge molecules such as proteins