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### 46 Cards in this Set

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 quantity a quantity is something that has magnitude size or amount weight a measurement of the gravitational pull on matter derived si units combinations of si base units afrom derived si units volume the amount of space occupied by an object density the ratio of mass to volume conversion factor the ratio derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to an other accuracy accuracy refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured precision precision refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity percent error calculated by subtracting the accepted value from the experimental value and then dividing nthe difference by the accepted value and then multiplying by 100 significant figures sig figs in a measurement consist of all the digits known w/ certainty plus one final digit which is somewhat uncertain or is an estimate Groups/familes the vertical columns of the periodic table periods the horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table metal a metal is an element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity nonmetal a nonmetal is an element that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity metaloid an element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of non-metals thermo-chemistry the study of the transfers of energy as heat that accompany chemical reactions and physical changes calorimiter the tool that measures the energy absorbed or released as heat in a chemical or phys change temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in ia sample of matter joule is the si unit for heat heat energy transferred between samples of matter because of a difference in their temperature specific heat the amount of energy required to raise the temp of one gram of a substance by 1 degree celcius heat of reaction the quantity of energy released or absorbed as heat during chemical reactions Atomici # the # of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element isotopes atoms of the same element that have different masses Mass # the total # of protons and nutrons in the nucleus of an isotope nuclide a gneral term for any isotope of any element atomic mass unit 1 amu is exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom average atomic mass the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occuring isotopes of an element mole the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon 12 avegardos # the # of particles in one mole of a pure substance mollar mass the mass of one mole of a pure substance law of conservation of mass states that mass is neither destroyed nor created during ordinary chem. reactions law of definite proportions the fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound law of multiple proportions if 2 or more different cmpds are composed fo the same 2 elmts then the ratio of masses of the 2nd elmt combined w/ a cetain mass of the 1st elmt is always a ratio of small whole #s Atom the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical props of that element nuclear forces short-range proton-proton, proton-neutron,and neutron-neutron forces, they hold the nuclear particles together electromagnetic radiation a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behaviors as it travels through space electromagnetic spectrum all forms of electromagnetic radiation form the electromagnetic spectrum wavelength the difference between corresponding points on adjacent waves photo electric effect refers to the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on the metal quantum the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom photon particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy ground state the lowest energy state of an atom excited state is a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state line-emission spectrum when a narrow beam of the emitted light was shined through a prism, it was separated into a series of specific frequencies of visible light contiunuous spectrum the emissions of a contiunous range of frequencies of electrom agnetic radiation