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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
constant value that the mass action expression gives you
equilibrium constant- Keq
what is the only thing that can change the value of Keq
temp
rate
product/time
catalyst
lowers the Ea-outs the particles together so you need less energy
exothermic
A+B-->C+energy
feels warm
endothermic
A+B+energy-->C
feels cold
factors affecting rate of reaction
1. temp (for every 10 degree incrase,it doubles the rate of reaction
2. concentration-adding particles increases it
3. particle size -larger surface area=faster
4. catalyst- helps orient the molecules
5. inhibitor- slows down rate
effective collisions
collisions must be effective in order for there to be a reaction
what 2 things make collisions effective
1. adequate rate
2. correct angle
kinetics
the branch of chemistry considered with the rates and mechanics of reaction
princeton clock
-shows intermediate stage
-goes from clear--> yellow (intermediate)--> to black
rate determining step
the one that happens the slowest (only as fast as the slowest part)
Rochelle salt and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
shows how a catalyst works
-oxygen is reactive and kills germs when H202 is broken down
-it is breaking down when u see bubbles
-colbalt chloride (CoCl2) acts as a catalyst for reaction
-increases the rate of reaction but it is not effected
-add peroxide to Rochelle salt- breaks down peroxide
end= colbat chloride, water, some things in ROchelle salt
enthalpy
the change in the amount of heat during a reaction
is heat of reaction negative or positive in exothermic
negative
what happens to energy as bonds are formed?
energy is released
what environmental conditions cause peroxide to decompose
heat and light
equilibrium
is reached when the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction
what will get this reaction to move forward
A+B-->C+D
removing D
Keq
equilibrium constant- how far a reversible reaction goes forward
mass action expression
[C] x [D]
---------
[A] x [B]
what is the unit of mass action expression (keq)
mole/L
what Keq FAVORS the products
when it is GREATER THAN 1
what keq favors the reactants
when it is LESS THAN 1
saturated solution
solution at physical equilibrium
physical equilibrium
condensation and evaporation occuring at the same time
what different kinds of stress can you put on equilibrium and what are the affects
1. change in pressure- if you increase the pressure, it will shift towards the side with less moles
2. change in concentration- increasing causes more effective collisions
A+B---> C+D
I D I I
if you start with decrease, the other two on the other side wiill decreawse, if you start with increase the other two on the other side will increase
4. change in temp- an increase in temperature favors teh ENDOthermic reaction
Haber process
nriogran (nitrates) explosives
N2+ 3H2<--->2NH3 + heat
entropy
S- easure of disorder/measure of randomness
negative and positive entropy
increasing- +
decreasing- -
ex. of S increasing
S-->L-->G
increase # of particles
increase temp
-dissociation/dissolving-more particles
NaCl--(H2o)-->Na+ + Cl-
-decrease pressure (only in gases)
gibbs free energy equation
deltaG= deltaH - TdeltaS
G
free energy- energy available to do work
when is G spontaneous
when delta G is negative
when is G improbable
when delta G is prositive
when is G equilibrium
when delta G is zero
what are two fators that determine whether a reaction is spontaneous
the size and irection of heat (enthalpy) change and entropy changes
NO2<-->N2O4 colors etc.
NO2<---------->N2O4
dark brown light brown
higher temp lower temp
mixture- hot=darker
cold=lighter
shows physical equilibrium
-shows frwrad and reverse reaciton bc of color change
Le Chateliers principle
explains how a system at equilibrium responds to relieve any stress on the system
stress
any change in temp, concentration, or pressure on an equilibrium system
when do pressure changes not have an effect on the rate of reaction
when only solids and liquids are involveed