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74 Cards in this Set

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Why is the atomic mass of an element typically not a whole number?
bc the atomic mass of each element is a weighted average of all the different istopes of a element
How did Boyle contribute to the understanding of gas behavior?(2)
Boyle came up with Boyle's law. Boyle's law states that the volume of the sample of gas of a given constant temperature varies inversely with a applied pressure (2)PV=constant for a given amount of gas at a fixed temperature
How did Chalres contribute to the understanding of gas behavior?(2)
Charles came up w Charles law which stated that the volumne occupied by any sample of gas at a constant pressure is deirectly proportional to the absloute temperature (2)V/T=Constant for a given amount of a gas a fixed pressure
How did Avogadro contriubute to our understanding of gas behavior? (2)
Avagadro came up with Avagadro's law which states that equal volumnes of any two gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules (2)In additon, this lead to him come up with the formula PV=nRT
What is the basis for the mole concept used in chemistry
bc when scientist prepare a compand industrally or even study a reaction in the labaratory, we deal w tremendous numbers of molecules of ions. The mole concept allows Chemisits to have a conveinet way to deal with those enormous numbers of molecules or ions in the samples that they may work with.
What is Avogadro's number?
6.02 *10^23
How do you find the number of molecules in substance? such as .0925 grams of glucose?
(1)multipy the number of moles of the substance by Avogadro's number (2)6.02*10^23*.0926 grams of glucose
What is the mass percent formula?
mass of A/ mass of total compound
What are the basic statements (postulates) of kinetic theory?
(1)all gases have molecules whoes size very tiny when compared to the average distance between them (2)molecules of any gas can move in any direction or at any speed from a striaght line (3)the laws of attraction and replision between molecules of a gas are weak unless they collide (4)When gases collide they are elastic meaning their kentic energy stays the same or constant (5) a gases temperature in Kelvin is proportionally to its volumne
How does Kinetic energy theory explain the differeneces between the ideal and real gas behavior? (4)
(1)the ideal gas law can be explained by the kinetic-molecullar theory. We define an ideal gas as consisting of molecules w negilble volumes that are in constant random motion. (2) in the ideal gas model, there are no intermolecular forces btwn molecules and the average kintetic energy of molecules is proportionaly to the absoulte temperatures. (3)Real gases deviate from the ideal gas law at high pressures and low temperatures. (4) from kinetic energy we can expect these deviations, because real molecules do have volumne and intermolecules forces do exist.
How does one find the Molarity?
1 mol/ liters
What the mathmatical relationship between energy and frequency?
energy are related. For instance when energy increases so does frequency and when frequency decreases so doe the energy
What is the mathematical relationship btwn frequency and wavelength?
they are inversely related. when the frequecny decreases the wavelength increases and vice versa
What is the mathematical relationship btwn wavelength and energy?
wavlength and energy are inversely related. for instance when the wavlength increases then the energy decreases and vice versa
What determines the idenity of an element?
the number of protons determines the idenitity of the element
Which of the following represents a chemical change
a)alcholol evaporting
b)toasting bread
c)rusting nail
d)bending a copper wire
e)boiling a egg
f)ice melting
b)toasting bread c)rusting nail e)boiling egg
gold foil is a example of (1)
an element
Apple juice is a example of (1)
a compound
distilled water is a example of (1)
an compound
filtered seawater is a ex of (1)
homogeneous mixture
smoke is a example of a (1)
heterogeneous mixture
Which of the following statements is never true for different istopes of an element?
a)they have the same number of electrons
b)they have the same number of protons
c)they have the same number of neutrons
d)they have the same atomic mass
e)they have the same atomic number
c)they have the same number of neutrons and d)they have the same atomic mass
Which of the following statements is true for the relationship of an ion to the corresponding element?
a)they have the same atomic mass
b)they have the same number of electrons
c)they have the same number of protons
d)they have the same neutrons
e)they have the same atomic number
a)they have the same atomic mass
c)they have the same number of protons
d)they have the same atomic number of neutrons
e)they have the same atomic number
Write the equation representing the combustion of pentanol(C5H11OH)?
C5H11OH + O2 = CO2 +H2O
What the mathmatical relationship between energy and frequency?
energy are related. For instance when energy increases so does frequency and when frequency decreases so doe the energy
What is the mathematical relationship btwn frequency and wavelength?
they are inversely related. when the frequecny decreases the wavelength increases and vice versa
What is the mathematical relationship btwn wavelength and energy?
wavlength and energy are inversely related. for instance when the wavlength increases then the energy decreases and vice versa
What determines the idenity of an element?
the number of protons determines the idenitity of the element
Which of the following represents a chemical change
a)alcholol evaporting
b)toasting bread
c)rusting nail
d)bending a copper wire
e)boiling a egg
f)ice melting
b)toasting bread c)rusting nail e)boiling egg
gold foil is a example of (1)
an element
Apple juice is a example of (1)
a compound
distilled water is a example of (1)
an compound
filtered seawater is a ex of (1)
homogeneous mixture
smoke is a example of a (1)
heterogeneous mixture
Which of the following statements is never true for different istopes of an element?
a)they have the same number of electrons
b)they have the same number of protons
c)they have the same number of neutrons
d)they have the same atomic mass
e)they have the same atomic number
c)they have the same number of neutrons and d)they have the same atomic mass
Which of the following statements is true for the relationship of an ion to the corresponding element?
a)they have the same atomic mass
b)they have the same number of electrons
c)they have the same number of protons
d)they have the same neutrons
e)they have the same atomic number
a)they have the same atomic mass
c)they have the same number of protons
d)they have the same atomic number of neutrons
e)they have the same atomic number
Write the equation representing the combustion of pentanol(C5H11OH)?
C5H11OH + O2 = CO2 +H2O
Indicate the main reaction types and their driving forces from chapter 4
(1)Precipate reaction's driving force is that it forms from a solid (2)Acid/Base's driving force is water and gas (3)Redox's driving force is the transfer of electrons
Compare and contrast the states of matter (4)
see other sheet (1)
Compare and contrast the Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit temperature scales (4)
see print out sheet (2)
Compare and Contrast the various acid and base definitions
see other sheet (chart 3)
Give example of a stong base and a strong acid?
(1)a strong acid=HI (2)a strong base = KOH
What is Arrhenius' def of a acid?
is a subtsance that produces H ions in water
What is Arrhenius' def of a base?
is a substance that produces OH ions when dissovled in water
What is Bronsted-Lowry's def of a acid?
is a H accpetor
What is Bronsred-Lowry's def of a base?
is a H donor
What is Lewis's def of a acid?
is e pair acceptor
What is Lewis's def of a base?
is a e pair donor
What is reduction?
is when you gain e
What is oxiadtion?
is when you lose e
Discuss the relationship of exothermic and endothermic reactions relative to the experimental effected noted result on system and sign of q
see other sheet (chart 4)
Describe and explain the changes in ionic radii for chroline to choride and sodieum element to sodium ion
(1)From the cl^+! to cholride, the ionic radi decrease because you lose electrons
(2)from Na to Na^+1, the ionic radii would increase because you gain 1 electron
T or F
a double bond is weaker than a triple bond
True
Why is the Born-Harber cycle useful?
bc it gives you a indirect way to find the lattice energy. The direct way is hard and requires a lot of steps and formulas
What are the observed trends in the periodic table for atomic sizes and ionization energies?(2)
(1)Atomic radii tend to decrease from left to right of the periodic table increase from top to bottom (2)First ionization eneries tend to increase from left to right and decrease from top to bottom
Why do Atomic radii tend to decrease from left to right on the periodic table?
this ocurs because you are adding eletrons and protons for each atomic number to the right. This increases the attractio btwn the protons and electrons in the atom. (2)resulting in the electrons being pulled closer to the nucleus and the atomic radius getting smaller
Why do Atmoic radii tend to increase from top to bottom in the periodic table? (3)
for example, group IA, eletrons are being filled and placed further away from the nucleus. All resulting in orbitals being added to atoms (2)in addtion, when each orbital is added, they are further away from the nucleus (3)this is what causes their atomic radius to increase in size
Why does the first ionization energy tend to increase from left to right?
This is because more electrons are being added and the attraction between them is increasing. Resulting in more potiental energy
Why does the first ionization tend to decrease from top to bottom?
this ocurs because atomic size increases from top to bottom (2)
Desribe how you could determine the specfic heat of an unkown metal. Be specific (4)
(1)This calrolmeter is made of two nested polystyrene coffee cups. (2)the outer cup helps to insulte teh reaction mixture from is surroundings (3)After the reactants, are added to the inner cup, the calorimeter is covered to reduce heat loss by evaporation and convenction (4)The heat of the reaction is determined by noting the temperature rise and fall
What is a major limitation of Bohr's theory?
postulates 1 and 2 work for other ions execpt that that the energy level cannot be obtained by a simply energy formula meanig his formula for the energy level only works for H atoms
Describe the difference btwn an electron obrital and an electron orbit (2)
(1)A electron orbital described the region of space where there is a high probaliity of finding the electrons (2)and the electron orbit is where the electron is actually in the electron cloud
An electron in a hydrogen atom in the level n=5 undergoes a transition to n=3. Which of the following transitions would be in higher energy?
a)n=4 to n=3
b)n=5 to n=1
c)n=2 to n=1
d)n=5 to n=2
e)n=5 to n=4
b) and d)
What is the bond order?
defined in terms of of the Lewis formula meaning the number of pairs of electrons in the bond
Why does Rutherford's experiment design and interpretation of his gold foil experiment results good use of scientific method? Include any diagrams that illsutrate your point (7)
(1)Rutherford was testing, Kelvin;s theory that the nucleus had a negative charge and the outside had a negative charge (2)he alpha particle at gold metal (3)His results showed that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil barely detected and a few however collided w the gold nuclei and deflected at large nagles. (4)Draw pic of this on page 48 (5) this proved that Kelvin's theory was wrong (6)Rutherford then came up w a new theory of his own to support the results of his experiment which was that the the nucleus has a postive charge and outside the nucleus has a negative charge (7)Overall, this experiment shows the good use of scientific method bc he kept on repeating the experiment until he proved his hypthothesis right--even though it failed the first time
Desribe and explain the differences in the molecular bond angles for CH4, NH3, and H2O (5)
(1)CH4, NH3, and H2O's electron geometry is tetrahedral (2)CH4's molecular geometry is tetrahedral and has 120 btwn each bond pair (3)NH3 has a molecular geometry is triagnoal pyramidal and has 107 degrees btwn each bonding pair (4)H2O molecular geometry is Bent and it has 105 degrees between each bonding pair (5) These differences in angles ocur because lone pairs tend to require more space then the corresponding bond pair and multiple bond require more space than single bonds
Draw a diagram to represent the bonding present in the acetylene molecule C2H2 and describe it. (5)
(1)for pic draw on page 397 (2)shows that the sp hybrid orbitals have a linear arrangement and the electron geometry is linear (3)Bond formed by the overlap of thse hybrid orbitals are sigma bonds (4)The two p orbitals are used to form pie bonds (5)Thus, the carbon-carbon triple bond consists of one sigma bond and two pie bonds
Draw and label the molecular orbital diagram for H2 and describe its compoents (3)
draw pic on page 401 (2)shows that you can obtain the electron configuration for the ground state of H2 by placing the two electrons into the lower energy orbital. (3) because the energy of the two electrons is lower than the their energies in the isolated atoms, the H2 molecules is stable
Explain why a molecule w the genreal formula AX3 can be either a zero or a non-zero dipole moment. Give ex to support this
(1)it can be a zero moment because 2 elements may have the same eletronegativity or a zero dipolemoment because the two elements electronegativity cancel out (2)2 elements might have a non-zero moment if there electronegativties are different (3)for ex show from electronegavity chart
How do you find the formal charge?
the valence e in the outer atom - (the number of bonds + the number of lone pairs)
What is the bond order of
C-C?
1
What is the Bond order of C::C?
2
How do you find standard enthalpy?
do standard enthalpy of products - standard enthalpy of the reactants
If you have two non-metals how to you name them or write them? such as diphosphate pentoxide
based upon how they look so if it is diphosphate pentooxide =P2O5