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79 Cards in this Set

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Matter
Anthing that has mass and takes up space.
Microscopic samples of matter
you can see the samples, as long as you have a microscope.
macroscopic samples of matter
can be observed with the naked eye.
particulate samples of matter
looking at molecules
molecules
extremely tiny partcicles that make up all matter
What is a model
a representation of something else.
What is a ball and stick model?
Shows atoms as balls and electrons as sticks connecting the atoms.
What is the space filling model??
Shows the outer boundries of the particle in the three dimensionsal space.
What are the states of matter?
gases liquids and solids
How can we explain the differences among gases, liquids, and solids?
using the kenetic molecular theory
What is the kenetic molecular theory?
it says that molecules move at slower speed at a lower temperature, and a higher speed at a higher temperature.
gas
when the temperature raises in a sample, the sample particles tend to move quickly and thus separate from eachother.
liquid
when the temperature drops, the molecules slow down, the attraction has more effect, and particles begin to form liquid drops. has a fixed volume.
Solid
As temeratures decrease even further, particles eventually no longer move within eachother, but are simply refuced to vibrating.Has a fixed volume and shape.
What is a pure substance?
A single chemical, one kind of matter. It has its own set of physical properites that are not exactly like the psysical properites of any other substance. Can not be seperated into parts by physical means.
Mixture
A mixture is a sample of matter that consists of two or more chemicals. The properties of the mixture change as the relative amounts of the different substances change.
Solution
also called a homogeneuos mixture. Has a uniform appearance and has a uniform composition. Random samples taken from a solution will all have uniform composition.
Distillation
Water has a lower boiling point than the dissolved solids in a solution of natural water, so if water is boiled, and the condensation collected, the result will be distulled water, a pure substance.
What is an element?
a substance that caonnot be decomposed or separated into other stable pure substances.
What is the smallest unit particle of an element?
an atom
compound
Any pure substance taht can be decomposed by a chemical change into two or more compounds. Cannot be separated by chemical means.
law of definite composition
any compound is always made up of elemnts in the same propotion by mass.
ex. 100 grams of water always contains 11.1 grams hydrogen and 88.9 grams oxygen.
What is a force feild?
A force field is the region in space where the force us effective.
when an object aquires an electrical charge that is not moving.
Static electricity
What are the behaviors of two objects having the same charge?
The two will repel eachother.
What are the behaviors of two objects having opposite charges.
they attract one another.
kenetic energy
mechanical energy.
chemical equation
how chemists describe a chemical change
reactants
the "before" written to the left of the arrow.
Products
the "after" written to the right of the arrow.
What is the law of conservation of mass?
In a nonnucular change, mass is conserved. It is neither created or destroyed.
What is the law of conservtion of energy?
Enery is conserved it is neither created nor destroyed.
tera (t)
10^12
giga(g)
10^9
Mega (M)
10^6
kilo(k)
10^3
hecto (h)
10^2
Deca (da)
10^1
Deci (d)
0.1=10^-1
centi(c)
0.01=10^-2
milli (m)
0.001=10^-3
micro(u)
0.000001=10^-6
nano (n)
10^-9
pico(p)
10^-12
what is the difference between mass and weight?
Mass is the quantity of matter, weight is a measure of the force of gravitational attraction.
What is the SI unit of length?
the meter (m)
What is the SI unit of volume?
the cubic cm. However the common unit for expressing the volume. the L is defined as exactly 1000 cubic cm.
What is the SI unit for temperature?
The Kelvin, or the absolute temperature scale.
density
mass/volume
The uncertain digit
the digit that could be effected by random error/ the last digit written.
what are the five parts of Daltons atomic theory?
1. Each element is made up of time, individual particles, called atoms.
2.Atoms are indivisible; they cannot be created or destroyed.
3. All atoms of each element are identical in every respect.
4. Atoms of one element are different from atoms of any other element.
5. Atoms of one element may combine with atoms of other elements, usually in ratios of whole numbers, to form chemical compounds.
What is the theory that Dalton's atomic theory lead to?
the law of multiple propotions
What does the law of multiple proportions say?
When two elements combine to form more than one compound, the different weights of one element that comvine with the same weight of the other element are in a simple ratio of whole numbers.
What was the main challenge to Daltons atomic theory?
It was found that tne atom contains even smaller parts, the subatomic particles.
Electron
e-, charge 1-, Located outside the nucleus, discovered in 1897 by thomson
Proton
p or p+, charge 1+, located inside the nucleus, discovered in 1919 by rutherford.
Neutron
N, charge 0, located inside nucleus. discovered in 1932 by chadwick.
What are the four parts to the nuclear model of the atom?
1. Every atom contains an extremely small, extrememly dense, nucleaus.
2.All of the positive charge and nearly all of the mass of an arom are concentrated in the nucleus.
3. All of the positive charge and nearly all of the mass of an atoma are concentrated in the nucleus.
3. The nucleus is surrounded by a much larger volume of nearly empty space that makes up the rest of the atom.
4. the space outside the nucleus is very thinly popualted by electrons, the total charge of which exactly balances the positive charge of the nucleus.
What are the horizontal rows of the periodic table called?
periods
what are the vertical rows of the periodic table called?
groups, or chemical families.
What are the main group elements?
Elements in the A groups
What are main group elements are also called?
The representative elements.
What are transition elements?
Elements in the B groups
Frequency
the numver of complete waves passing a point at each second.
When does light produce a continuous spectrum?
When standard light is put through a prism.
When radioactive energy is put through a spectrum...
If forms a line spectrum that forms discrete lines-- each element has a unique line spectrum.
What is the bohr model of the hydrogen ion?
The energy possessed by the electron in a hydrogen atom and the radium of its orbit are quantized by energy levels.
Quantized energy levels.
this means that, at any instant the electron may have one of several possibly energies, but at no
Cation
If an atom loss one of more electrons the ion has a positive charge.
Anion
If the atom gains electrons, the ion is negitively charged.
Ionic compouds
compounds made up of ions or solutions of ionic compounds.
Molecular compounds
ultimate structural unit is an individual particle known as a molecule.
Covalent bond.
Two atoms ina molecle are held together by these bonds.
A bond in which bonding electrons are shared equally is
a non polar bond
A bond in which bonding electrons are not shared equally is
a polar bond.
How do you calculate the polarity of the bond?
by calculating the difference between the electronegitivity values.
What is the electronegitivity of an element?
The ability of an atom of that element in a molecule to attract bonding electron pairs to itself.
What are the steps for drawing lewis diagrams?
Calculate the total number of valence electrons, determine the central atom, draw a tentative diagram, compare the number of valence electrons to the number used in the diagram.
Bond angle
the angle between two bonds formed by the same central atom.