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66 Cards in this Set

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the branch of science that involves the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.
chemistry
What do we call anything that has mass and occupies space?
matter
What is meant by the term "scientific law"?
a summary of a large amount of scientific information
What word means the application of scientific principles to meeting human needs?
technology
What is a hypothesis?
an attempt to explain an observation in a common-sense way
When does a hypothesis attain the status of a theory?
when sufficient experiments have been performed to confirm that the hypothesis is correct
In which state does matter have an indefinite shape and definite volume?
liquid
In which state of matter are forces between particles least dominant?
gas
What kind of change does not alter the composition or identity of the substance undergoing the change?
physical
Conversion of ice to liquid water or liquid water to steam is an example of what kind of change?
physical
In one sentence, explain clearly what is meant by a "chemical change".
A chemical change results in different substance(s) from those initially present.
What type of change is represented by the decay of a fallen tree?
chemical
The green color of the Statue of Liberty is due to a ______________ change to the copper metal it is made of.
chemical
What do we call the beginning and end materials in a chemical reaction?
reactants and products
What type of property of matter is independent of the quantity of the substance?
intensive
What word is used to describe properties of a substance that depend on the quantity of substance? Give two examples of such properties.
extensive; mass, volume, and others
What is meant in chemistry by the term "pure substance"?
The substance consists of only one component; it has a fixed composition throughout.
What are two kinds of a pure substance?
elements and compounds
In chemistry, explain what is meant by the word "compound".
a pure substance consisting of two or more elements chemically combined in a definite ratio
What are the two classes of mixtures?
homogeneous and heterogeneous
Give an example of a heterogeneous mixture.
concrete, salt and pepper, smoky air, and others
What kind of mixture is a solution of alcohol and water?
homogeneous
Which of the following terms are appropriate in describing an apple?
pure substance; element; compound; mixture; homogeneous; heterogeneous
mixture; heterogeneous
What does the prefix "centi-" mean?
10-2 or 0.01
1 milligram is equivalent to how many grams?
1 × 10-3 g
How many centimeters correspond to 15.68 kilometers?
1.568 × 106 cm
How many pounds are represented by 764.6 mg? [Use: 1 pound = 454 g]
1.684 × 10-3 pounds
A typical aspirin tablet contains 5.00 grains of pure aspirin analgesic compound. The rest of the tablet is starch. How many aspirin tablets can be made from 50.0 g of pure aspirin? [Use: 1.00 g = 15.4 grains]
154 tablets
A patient weighs 146 pounds and is to receive a drug at a dosage of 45.0 mg per kg of body weight. The drug is supplied as a solution that contains 25.0 mg of drug per mL of solution. How many mL of the drug should the patient receive? [Use: 1 pound = 454 g]
119 mL
If a person smokes 10.0 packs of cigarettes a week and each cigarette contains 5.00 mg of tar, how many weeks will she have to smoke to inhale 0.250 pounds of tar? [Use: 20 cigarettes = 1 pack and 1 pound = 454 g]
114 weeks
The cost of a drug is 125 francs per gram. What is the cost in dollars per ounce? [Use: $1 = 6.25 francs and 1 ounce = 28.4 g]
$568/ounce
If one atom of carbon-14 weighs 14.0 atomic mass units and one atomic mass unit is equal to 1.66 × 10-24 grams, what is the mass of 25.0 atoms of carbon-14 in grams?
5.81 × 10-20 g
A patient needs 0.300 g of a solid drug preparation per day. How many 10.0 mg tablets must be given to the patient per day?
30.0 tablets
When the value of an experimental quantity or measurement (e.g., the mass of a tablet) is reported, it should consist of two parts. What are they?
number and units
What do we call a basic quantity of mass, volume, time, etc.?
unit
Express the number 0.000327730 to three significant figures using scientific notation.
3.28 × 10-4
How many significant figures are in the number 5.06305 × 104?
6
Write the number 3,000 using scientific notation and the proper number of significant digits.
3 × 103
Write the number 0.9050 using scientific notation and the proper number of significant digits.
9.050 × 10-1
Provide the answer to the following problem using scientific notation and the proper number of significant digits: (6.00 × 10-2)(3.00 × 10-4) = ?
1.80 × 10-5
Provide the answer to the following problem using scientific notation and the proper number of significant digits: (4.3169 × 104) ÷ (2.02 × 103) = ?
2.14 × 101
Provide the answer to the following problem using the proper number of significant digits:
0.004 + 26.59 + 3.2 = ?
29.8
What is meant by the word "mass"?
the quantity of matter in a sample
What instrument is used to measure the mass of an object?
a balance
What commonly used mass unit is approximately the same as the mass of one hydrogen atom?
atomic mass unit
Which physical property of an astronaut will change depending on whether he or she is on earth or in orbit?
weight
What is the basic unit of volume in the metric system?
liter
List four different forms of energy, other than kinetic energy or potential energy.
any four of heat, light, electrical, mechanical, chemical
What Fahrenheit temperature corresponds to -168.7°C?
-271.7°F
What form of energy is usually absorbed or liberated during chemical reactions?
heat
In the swinging of a pendulum, what two forms of energy are constantly being interconverted?
kinetic energy and potential energy
What kind of energy is stored as the result of position or composition?
potential energy
What do we call the experimental quantity, which gives the number of particles of a substance (or their mass) contained per unit volume?
concentration
The density of an object is the ratio of its _______ to its _______.
mass; volume
If we assume the density of blood is 1.060 g/mL, what is the mass of 6.56 pints of blood in grams? [Use: 1 L = 2.113 pints]
3.29 × 103 g
A solid that had a mass of 189.6 g was found to have the following measurements: length = 9.80 cm; width = 46.6 mm; height = 0.111 m. What is its density in g/mL?
0.374 g/mL
When a large object fell into a "full" swimming pool, it displaced 32.0 gallons of water. The density of the object is 1.65 g/mL. What is the object's weight in pounds? Remember that any fully immersed object displaces its own volume. [Use: 454 g = 1 pound; 1 L = 1.06 quarts]
439 pounds
What is the branch of chemistry that is being applied in measuring the concentration of an air pollutant?
A. analytical chemistry
What do we call a statement of observed behavior for which no exceptions have been found?
C. law
Which state of matter has no definite shape or volume?
E. gas
Which of the following is NOT a physical property of matter?
C. flash point
What kind of change is accompanied by the release of heat?
C. exothermic
What kind of change always results in the formation of new materials?
E. chemical
Which of the following is a chemical property?
A. flammability
Which one of the following is an example of an extensive property?
C. mass
Which one of the following is an example of a pure substance?
A. ethyl alcohol