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133 Cards in this Set

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a substance that produces hydrogen ions in aqueous solution; a proton donor
acid
a substance that marks the endpoint of an acid-base titration by changing color
acid-base indicator
rainwater with an acidic pH, a result of air polution by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
acid rain
a covalent oxide that dissolves in water to give an acidic solution
acidic oxide
the threshold energy that must be overcome to produce a chemical reaction
activation energy
a substance that contains a mixture of elements and has metallic properties
alloy
a helium nucleus produced in radioactive decay
alpha particle
a common mode of decay for radioactive nuclides in which the mass number changes
alpha-particle production
an organic acid in which an amino group, a hydrogen atom, and an R group are attached to the carbon atom next to the carboxyl group
amino acid
a substance that can behave either as an acid or as a base
amphoteric substance
negative ion
anion
in a galvanic cell, the electrode at which oxidation occurs
anode
solution in which water is the dissovling medium, or solvant
aqueous solution
concept postulating that acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution, whereas bases produce hydroxide ions
Arrhenius concept
the fundamental unit of which elements are composed
atom
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
the transfer of a proton from one molecule to another of the same substance
auto-ionization
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles (atoms or molecules)
Avogadro's law
6.02 x 10^23
Avdogadro's number
a molecular model that distorts the sizes of atoms but shows bond relationships clearly
ball-and-stick model
a device for measuring atmospheric pressure
barometer
a substance that produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution; a proton acceptor
base
a group of galvanic cells connected in series
battery
an electron produced in radioactive decay
beta particle
a decay process for radioactive nuclides in which the mass of number remains constant and the atomic number increases by one. the net effect is to change a neutron to a proton
beta-particle production
a 2-element compound
binary compound
the energy required to decompose a nucleus into its component nucleons
binding energy
the study of the chemistry of living systems
biochemistry
the force that holds two atoms together in a compound
bond(chemical bond)
the energy required to break a given chemical bond
bond energy
the volume of a given sample of gas at constant temperature varies inversely with the pressure
Boyle's law
a nuclear reactor in which fissionable fuel is produced while the reactor runs
breeder reactor
a model proposing that an acid is a proton donor and that a base is a proton acceptor
bronsted-lowry model
the ability of a buffered solution to absorb protons or hydroxide ions withour a significant change in pH
buffer capacity
solution that resists a change in its pH when either hydroxide ions or protons are added
buffered solution
a unit of measurement for energy; 1 calorie is the quantity of energy required to heat one gram of water by one Celsius degree
Calorie
a substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed
catalyst
in a galvanic cell, the elctrode at which reduction occurs
cathode
positive ion
cation
the driving force in a galvanic cell that pushes electrons from the reducing agent in one compartment to the oxidizing agent in the other
cell potential (electromotive force)
a self-sustaining fissiion process caused by the production of neutrons that proceed to splt other nuclei
chain reaction (nuclear)
the volume of a given sample of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the temperature in kelvins
Charles's Law
the change of substances into other substances through a reorganiztion of the atoms
chemical change
a representation of a chemical reaction showing the relative numbers of reactants and product molecules
chemical equation
a dynamic reaction system in which the concentrations of all reactants and products remain constant as a function of time
chemical equilibrium
a model based on the idea that molecules must collide to react
collision model
the vigorous and exothermic oxidation-reduction reaction that takes place between certain substances (organic compounds) and oxygen
combustion reaction
substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes
compound
vapor molecules reform a liquid
condensation
the species formed when a proton is added to a base
conjugated acid
2 species related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton
conjugate acid-base pair
what remains of an acid molecule after a proton is lost
conjugate base
the process by which metals are oxidized in the atmosphere
corrosion
a type of bonding in which atoms share electrons
covalent bonding
for a mixture of gases in a container, the total pressure exerted is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were alone
Dalton's law of partial pressures
property of matter representing the mass per unit volume
density
process of adding solvent to lower the concentration of solute in a solution
dilution
the attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up such that the positive and negative ends are close to each other
dipole-dipole attraction
a bond in which 2 atoms share 2 pairs of electrons
double bond
the ability to conduct an electric current
electrical conductivity
study of the interchange of chemical and electrical energy
electrochemistry
a process that involves forcing a current through a cell to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction of occur
electrolysis
a negatively charged particle that occupies the space around the nucleus of an atom
electron
the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
electronegativity
substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. it consists of atoms all having the same atomic number.
element
the point in a titration at which the indicator changes color
end point
refers to a reaction in which energy, heat, flows into the system
endothermic
the capacity to do work or to cause the flow of heat
energy
at constant pressure, the change in it equals the energy flow as heat
enthalpy
the value obtained when equilibrium concentrations of the chemical species are substituted into the euqilibrium expression
equilibrium constant
the expression equal to the product of the product concentrations divided by the product of the reactant concentrations, each concentration having first been raised to a power represented by the coefficient in the balanced equation
equilibrium expression
refers to a reaction in which energy, heat, flows out of the system
exothermic
the process of using a neutron to split a heavy nucleus into 2 nuclei with smaller mass numbers
fission
the process of combining 2 light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus
fusion
a device in which chemical energy from a spontaneous oxidation-reduction reaction is changed to electrical energy that can be used tot do work
galvanic cell
a high-energy photon produced in radioactive decay
gamma ray
a warming effect exerted by certain molecules in the earth's atmosphere (particularly carbon dioxide and water)
greenhouse effect
the time required for the number of nuclides in a radioactive sample to reach half the original number of nuclides
half-life (of a radioactive sample)
the 2 parts of an oxidation-reduction reaction, one representing oxidation, the other reduction
half-reation
interaction between solute particles and water molecules
hydration
unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among molecules in which hydrogen is bonded to a highly electronegative atom
hydrogen bonding
relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules
intermolecular forces
interactions that occur within a given molecule
intramolecular forces
an atom or a group of atoms that has a net postitive or negative charge
ion
the equilibrium constant for the auto-ionization of water; equals [H][OH]; at 25*C, equals 1.0 x 10^-14
ion-product constant; kw
the attraction between oppsitely charged ions
ionic bonding
the quantity of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
ionization energy
atoms of the same element(the same number of protons) that have different numbers of neutrons. they have identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers
isotopes
energy due to the motion of an object; dependent on the mass of the object and the square of its velocity
kinetic energy
if a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the postition of the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to reduce the effect of that change
Le Chatelier's principle
a diagram of a molecule showing how the valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule
lewis structure
the reactant that is completely comsumed when a reactant is run to completion
limiting reactant (limiting reagent)
the material of the universe
matter
an element that gives up electrons relatively easily and it typically lustrous, malleable, and a good conductor of heat and electricity
mteal
an element that has both metallic and nonmetallic properties
metalloid
a unit of measurement for pressure, also called a torr
millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
the energy required to melt 1 mol of a solid
molar heat of fusion
the energy required to vaporize 1 mol of a liquid
molar heat of vaporization
moles of solute pervolume of solution in liters
molarity
the ratio of moles of one substance to moles of another substance in a balanced chemical equation
mole ratio (stoichiometry)
an acid-base equation
neutralization reaction
an element that doesn't exhibit metallic characteristics; typically accepts electrons from a metal
nonmetal
the number of equivalents of a substance dissolved in a liter of solution
normality
a representation of the space occupied by an eletron in an atom; the probability distribution for the electron
orbital
loss of electrons
oxidation
a reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred
oxidation-reduction(redox)reaction
a reactant that accepts electrons from another reactant
oxidizing agent
the independent pressures exerted by different gases in a mixture
partial pressures
the actual yield of a product as a percentage of the theoretical yield
percent yield
a long of scale based on 10 and equal to -log[H]; represent solution acidity
pH scale
a covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts them more strongly than the other
polar covalent bond
a "particle" pf electromagnetic radiation
photon
a mode of nuclear decay in which a particle is formed that has the same mass as an electron but opposite charge. the net effect is to change a proton to a neutron
positron production
energy due to postition or composition
potential energy
a positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus
proton
the spontaneous decomposition of a nucleus to form a different nucleus
radioactive decay (radioactivity)
a reactant that donates electrons to another substance, reducing the oxidation state of one of its atoms
reducing agent (electron donor)
gain of electrons
reduction
a U-tube containing an electrolyte that connects the two compartments of a galvanic cell, allowing ion flow without wextensive mixing of the different solutions
salt bridge
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given volume of solvent or solution at a given temperature
solubility
the constant for the equilibrium expression representing the dissolving of an ionic solid in water
solubility product
a substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution
solute
the dissolving medium in a solution
solvent
another name for specific heat capacity
specific heat
the condition 0*C and 1 atmophere of pressure
STP
an acid that completely dissociates (ionizes) to produce H ion and the conjugate base
strong acid
a metal hydroxide compound that completely dissociates into its ions in water
strong base
the process by which a substance goes directly from the solid state to the gaseous state without passing through the liquid state
sublimation
a technique in which one solution is used to analyze another
titration
the characteristic reflecting the fact that any measurement involves estimates and cannot be exactly reproduced
uncertainty
an acid that dissociates only to a slight extent in a aqueous solution
weak acid
a base that reacts with water to produce gydroxide ions to only a slight extent in aqueous solution
weak base
a measure of randomness or disorder of a system
entrophy