Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anything that occupies space
tiny particles too small to see. can bond together to make molecules
2 or more atoms joined to one another in specific arrangements
a measure of quanity of matter...does not change. often confused with weight.
the force of gravity acting on a mass of a particular object...varies w/ gravity whereas matter does not. often confused w/ mass.
a study of the composition and characteristics of everything that exists in the universe and the changes it undergoes.
Three states of Matter
1. solid
2. liquid
3. gas
**can be interconverted w/o changing the composition of matter
-has a definite shape
-made up of tiny, tiny particles that are held together by attractive forces (tightly packed and arranged--no chance for movement)
-does not have a definite shape
-takes shape of its container
-made up of particles not as tightly packed as solids--this allows free movement
Two types of Liqids
1. omiscible
2. immiscible
type of liquide that can be mixed in any proportion and will remain mixed throughout.

ie: water and alcohol
can never be mixed, even after mixed, it will separate and eventually form 2 layers.

ie: water and oil
Viscous Liquid/Viscosity
measure of resistant to flow...thick liquid

ie: honey
-no def. shape or volume
-takes the shape of its container
-can diffuse rapidly (can mix w/ other gases as they move to occupy the space)
-can be a mixture of several gases
-also made of tiny particles, but can move freely and rapidly
examples of gas
air, helium, carbond dioxide
examples of solids
ice, sand, rocks, sugar, gold, aluminum
examples of liquids
water, alcohol
how many elements are there?

how do they "occur?"

some occur in NATURE and some, are rarely, made synthetically by man.
a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances.
-contains tiny particles--atom

*most fundamental substances from which all substances are formed.
a particular form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct properties.

*can be a PURE if it is composed of some kind of particles throughout.
a substance that is composed of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions
properties of compound
*different from those of individual elements involved

-each compound has a specific atom ratio and percentage by mass for each element
-can be separated by chemical means into their pure substances
any sample of matter can be classified into two things:
1. pure substance
2. mixture
pure substance
can be either an element or compound.

same kind of molecules throughout.
why are elements and compounds said to be HOMOGENEOUS?
definite composition & contains 100% of the same material
Exmaples of HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE: Common Solutions
Gas: Natural Gas, Air
Liquid: wine, rubbing alcohol, tincture of iodine, beer
Solid: brass, bronze, stainless steel, sterling silver, gold (14k, 10k)
The composition of this can vary:

What is the difference b/w homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures?
HOMO: has no uniform composition, are solid solutions (alloys)--either gaseous or liquid solutions: coffee, tea, helium

HETERO: can be easily separated--sand, mixed nuts, iron fillings
lab definition: CHEMISTRY
a quantitative science. a successful explanation of a chemical phenomenon can be achieved only by quantifying the experimental observation.
3 parts of measurement
numerical quantity
unity type
name of what you are measuring

ie: 10 lbs. of sugar
4 fundamental parts of matter
3 different systems of measurement
english system
metric system
international/SI system
Which measurement system is used in the US?
English system: conversion of units w/in this system or to other systems is often inconvenient, confusing, and involves complicated arithmatic.
Which is the favored measurement system and what is it based on?
Metric---decimal system
International/SI system:
an updated version of the metric system and used in most countries as well as scientific work
USA measures temperature in...
F highest point (boiling pt. of water):
F lowest point (freezing pt. of water):
Fahrenheit scale is divided into _____units b/w freezing and boiling point of water that is 1 unit= 1 C
the unit in temperature in the interntational/SI system, mostly used in scientific work
Freezing point in Kelvin
boiling point in Kelvin
in scientific work it is often necessary to convert a measured quantity of a substance from one unit to another either w/in the same or b/w different systems of measurement.
the characteristics that are used to distinguish one substance from the other
Properties of a substance can be classified into two types:

physical properties
inherent characteristics of a substance that can be dertermined w/o altering its composition.
common physical properties
color, odor, taste, hardness, density, melting pt., boiling pt.
chemical properties
those that are related to cahnges in its composition. they describe the ability of a substance to form new substances.
common chemical properties
rusting, decomposition, explosion, corrosiveness, acidity, flammability, and other reactions w/ other substances
properties of matter:
each substance of matter has a set of characteristics that gives a unique identity...

different substances have unique properties that identify them and distinguish them from other substances.
matter can undergo two types of changes:
physical changes of matter
changes in physical properties such as size, shape, density, and changes in state of matter.

*the composition of matter is NOT altered
*NO new substances are formed
example of physical changes of matter
ice into water and steam and melting of wax in a candle
chemical changes of matter
a substance is changed or converted into another substance that has different properties and composition

*a NEW substance is formed and doesn't resemble the original substance
when a substance undergoes a chemical change, it undergoes a ___________ __________.

example please...
chemical reation...

rusting of iron, burning of natural gas, and reaction of baking soda & lemon juice.
a french chemist that carried out many reactions and showed that the mass of the substances were the same before and after the reaction...created the LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
created by Antoine Lavoiseier...

*during a chemical reaction, the mass is neither created nor destroyed.
constant external assistance or has a PIVOTAL role in the physical and chemical changes of matter

the capacity or the ability of matter to do work.
any form of energy can be classified into two types:
potential energy
kinetic energy
Potential Energy
a stored energy.
*the energy of an object b/c of its position or composition.
Kinetic Energy
the energy that matter possesses due to its motion.
energy is neither created nor destroyed...the total amount of energy in the universe is constant...there is no loss or gain of energy during conversion
types of forms energy exists in:
radiation, sound, heat, electrical, mechanical, chemical