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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
activated complex
transitional structure that results from an effective
collision and that persists while old bonds are breaking and new bonds are
forming (535)
activation energy
the minimum energy required to transform the reactants into
an activated complex (534)
calorimeter
a device used to measure the heat absorbed or released in a
chemical or physical change (511)
catalysis
the action of a catalyst (540)
catalyst
a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without itself
being permanently consumed (540)
chemical kinetics
the area of chemistry that is concerned with reaction rates
and reaction mechanisms (538)
collision theory
set of assumptions regarding collisions and reactions (532)
enthalpy change
the amount of energy absorbed or lost by a system during a
process at constant pressure (516)
entropy
measure of the degree of randomness of the particles, such as
molecules, in a system (527)
free energy
the combined enthalpy-entropy function of a system (528)
free-energy change
the difference between the change in enthalpy, ΔH, and the
product of the Kelvin temperature and the entropy change, which is defined as
TΔS, at a constant pressure and temperature (528)
heat
the energy transferred between samples of matter because of a difference in
their temperature (512)
heat of combustion
energy released as heat by the complete combustion of one
mole of a substance (519)
heat of reaction
the quantity of energy released or absorbed as heat during a
chemical reaction (514)
Hess’s law
the overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of the
enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process (519)
heterogeneous catalyst
a catalyst whose phase is different from that of the
reactants (540)
heterogeneous reaction
a reaction involving reactants in two different
phases (538)
homogeneous catalyst
a catalyst that is in the same phase as all the reactants
and products in a reaction system (540)
homogeneous reaction
a reaction whose reactants and products exist in a
single phase (532)
intermediate
a species that appears in some steps of a reaction but not in the
net equation (532)
joule
the SI unit of heat energy as well as all other forms of energy (511)
molar heat of formation
the heat released or absorbed when one mole of a
compound is formed by the combination of its elements (517)
rate-determining step
the slowest-rate step for a chemical reaction (543)
rate law
an equation that relates the reaction rate and concentrations of
reactants (542)
reaction mechanism
the step-by-step sequence of reactions by which the
overall chemical change occurs (531
reaction rate
the change in concentration of reactants per unit time as a reaction
proceeds (538)
specific heat
the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one
gram of substance by one Celsius degree (1° C) or one kelvin (1 K) (512)
temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample
of matter (511)
thermochemical equation
an equation that includes the quantity of heat
released or absorbed during the reaction as written (515)
thermochemistry
the study of the changes in heat energy that accompany
chemical reactions and physical changes (511)