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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Alkaline Metals
Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs
Alkaline Earth Metals
Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba
Noble Gases
He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
Halogens
F, Cl, Br, I, At
cation
positive ions, have same name as metal (for metal catoins)
anion
negative ions, formed by replacing end of name of elemend with ide
Ammonium ion
NH4+
hydronium ion
H30+
hydride ion
H-
Nitride ion
N(-3)
hydroxide ion
OH-
cyanide ion
CN-
peroxide ion
O2(-2)
magnesium ion
Mg(+2)
calcium ion
Ca(+2)
strontium ion
Sr(+2)
barium ion
Ba(+2)
zinc ion
Zn(+2)
cadmium ion
Cd(+2)
Aluminum ion
Al(+3)
Carbonate ion
CO3(-2)
Nitrate ion
NO3(-)
Phosphate ion
PO4(-3)
Sulfate ion
SO4(-2)
Chlorate ion
ClO3(-)
per___ate
(+O atom)
adding H to oxyanions
prefix hydrogen or dihydrogen etc, and reduces the charge by however many H added
Acetate ion
C2H3O2(-)
perchlorate ion
ClO4(-)
Permangantate ion
MnO4(-)
acid nomenclature
ate-->ic, ite-->ous, keep per or hypo prefixes where appropriate
greek prefixes
mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca
naming binary molecular compounds
1) name of element farther left usually writen first. cept compounds containing oxygen (always last except when w/ flourine)
2)elements of same group, one with higher atomic number named first
3)name of second element given ide ending
4)use greek prefixes, just dont say mono for the first element named
combustion reactions def
rapid reactions producing a flame. involve O2 as a reactant. combustion of hydrocarbon compounds --produce CO2 and H2O
percent composition
%element = ((number of atoms of that element)(atomic weight of element))/formula weight of compound
mole
number of atoms, ions or molecules in a sample
avogadros number
6.02x10^23
molar mass
mass in grams of oen mole of a substance (g/mol)
converting between g moles and formula weight
grams<-use molar mass->moles<-use avogadro's number->formula units
finding empirical formulas
mass%elements--assume 100g sample-->grams of each element---use molar mass-->moles of each element---calculate mole ratio--->empirical formula
limiting reacting/reagent
the reactant that is completely consumed in a reaction
aqueous solution
solutions in which water is the dissolving medium
solution
a homogeneous mixtrure of two or more substances
solvent
substance in a solution present in greatest quantity
solute
substances in a solution in less quantity
electrolyte
a substance whose aqueous solutions contain an electrolyte
soluble ionic compounds
NO3(-)

C2H3O2(-)

Cl(-) minus Ag+, Hg2(+2), Pb(+2)

Br(-) minusAg+, Hg2(+2), Pb(+2)

I(-) minus Ag+, Hg2(+2), Pb(+2)

SO4(-2) minus Sr(+2) Ba(+2) Hg2(+2) and Pb(+2)
insoluble ionic compounds
S(-2) minus NH4(+), alkali metal cations, Ca(+2), Sr(+2) and Ba(+2)

CO3(-2) minus NH4+ alkali metal cations

PO4(-3) mius NH4+ and alkali metal cations

OH(-) minus alkali metal cations, NH4+, Ca(+2) Sr(+2) and Ba(+2)
acids
ionize in aqueous solutions to form hydrogen ions. proton donors (H+ a proton)
bases
accept (react with) H+ ions and produce hydroxide ions when dissolve in water
strong acidsa dn bases
are strong electrolytes (completely ionized in solution). more reactive than weak
weak acides and bases
are weak electrolytes (partly ionized in solution), less reactive than strong
chalcogens
O, S, Se, Te, Po
to find grams of sub B given grams sub A
grams sub A ---> moles sub A --use coefficients of A and B from balanecd equation --. moles of sub B---> grams sub B
theoretical yield
the quantity of product that is calculated to form when all fo tthe limiting reactant reacts .
percent yield
actual yield/theoretical yield
x100
metathesis or exchange reactions
AX + BY ---> AY + BX
many precipitation reactions and acid base reactions
molecular equation
chemical formulas of reactants and products without indicating ionic character
complete ionic equation
shows all soluble strong electrolytes shown as ions
spectator ion
ions that appear in identical forms among both the reactants and products ina complete ionic equation. play no direct role in the reaction.
net ionic equation
complete ionic equation - spectator ions
Strong Acid examples
HCl, HBr, HI, HClO3, HClO4, HNO3, H2SO4
Strong Bases examples
alkaline metal hydroxides, and Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2
is NH3 a strong or weak base?
weak