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### 21 Cards in this Set

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 what is the study of matter by investigating light, sound, or particles that are emitted, absorbed, or scattered spectroscopy what are three ways to measure reaction rates? spectroscopy electrical conductance measurement pressure measurement how is reaction rate measured? rate=-change[A]/change(t) [A]=molarity of A What is the Rate Law aA+bB----->cC+dD Rate=k([A]^x)([B]^y) reaction is xth order in A, yth order in B, and (x+y)th order overall In a first order reaction what equation would we use to find the time it takes for a Molarity concentration to half for example? ln[A]=ln[A]o -kt where [A] is final concentration [A]o is initial concentration, k is the concentration factor, and t is time what is the equation for half life of a first order reaction? t(1/2)=ln(2)/k How do you know if a reaction is first order? if the units involved with the concentration factor have 1/s or inverse seconds. what is the half life of a second order reaction? t(1/2)=1/k[A]o what is the half life of a zero order reaction? t(1/2)=[A]o/2k what are the rate equations for zero,first,second and third order reactions zero: -d[A]/dt=k First: -d[A]/dt=k[A] Second: -d[A]/dt=k[A]^2 Third: -d[A]/dt=k[A]^3 What are the concentration-Time equations for Zero, first, and second order equations Zero: [A]=[A]o-kt First: ln[A]=ln[A]o-kt Second: 1/[A]=(1/[A]o)-kt k = A*exp(-Ea/R*T) what equation is this and what does everything mean Arrhenius Equation k=rate constant A=frequency factor Ea=energy of activation R=gas constant T=absolute temperature what does Molecularity mean? Number of Molecules reacting in the elementary step What is a catalyst? a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction What are the three types of catalysts? Heterogeneous Catalysis Homogeneous Catalysis Enzyme Catalysis How do we calculate the equilibrium constant and how do we determine the lie? aA + bB<--------->cC + dD k=([C]^c)([D]^d)/(([A]^a)([B]^b) if k is greater than 1 than lie is to the right if k is less than 1 than lie is to the left Out of gases,liquids, and solids what are the only things included in the equilibrium concentration factor equation? gases! liquids and solids are not included!!! how do you find change of n moles of gas products -moles gas reactants what is Qc and what does it predict? Qc=[products]/[reactants] if Qc>kc proceeds from right if Qc