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21 Cards in this Set

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what is the study of matter by investigating light, sound, or particles that are emitted, absorbed, or scattered
spectroscopy
what are three ways to measure reaction rates?
spectroscopy
electrical conductance measurement
pressure measurement
how is reaction rate measured?
rate=-change[A]/change(t)
[A]=molarity of A
What is the Rate Law
aA+bB----->cC+dD
Rate=k([A]^x)([B]^y)
reaction is xth order in A,
yth order in B, and
(x+y)th order overall
In a first order reaction what equation would we use to find the time it takes for a Molarity concentration to half for example?
ln[A]=ln[A]o -kt
where [A] is final concentration [A]o is initial concentration, k is the concentration factor, and t is time
what is the equation for half life of a first order reaction?
t(1/2)=ln(2)/k
How do you know if a reaction is first order?
if the units involved with the concentration factor have 1/s or inverse seconds.
what is the half life of a second order reaction?
t(1/2)=1/k[A]o
what is the half life of a zero order reaction?
t(1/2)=[A]o/2k
what are the rate equations for zero,first,second and third order reactions
zero:
-d[A]/dt=k
First:
-d[A]/dt=k[A]
Second:
-d[A]/dt=k[A]^2
Third:
-d[A]/dt=k[A]^3
What are the concentration-Time equations for Zero, first, and second order equations
Zero:
[A]=[A]o-kt
First:
ln[A]=ln[A]o-kt
Second:
1/[A]=(1/[A]o)-kt
k = A*exp(-Ea/R*T)
what equation is this and what does everything mean
Arrhenius Equation
k=rate constant
A=frequency factor
Ea=energy of activation
R=gas constant
T=absolute temperature
what does Molecularity mean?
Number of Molecules reacting in the elementary step
What is a catalyst?
a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction
What are the three types of catalysts?
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Homogeneous Catalysis
Enzyme Catalysis
How do we calculate the equilibrium constant and how do we determine the lie?
aA + bB<--------->cC + dD
k=([C]^c)([D]^d)/(([A]^a)([B]^b)
if k is greater than 1 than lie is to the right
if k is less than 1 than lie is to the left
Out of gases,liquids, and solids what are the only things included in the equilibrium concentration factor equation?
gases!
liquids and solids are not included!!!
how do you find change of n
moles of gas products -moles gas reactants
what is Qc and what does it predict?
Qc=[products]/[reactants]
if Qc>kc proceeds from right
if Qc<kc proceeds from left
if Qc=kc at equilibrium
carrot points to the direction it proceeds from
what are 4 factors that affect equilibrium?
concentration
pressure
volume
and temperature
For the following things say if they shift equilibrium, or change equilibrium concentration or both
shifts equil changes equil K
concentration :
yes no
Pressure:
yes no
Volume:
yes no
temp:
yes yes
catalyst:
no no