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### 63 Cards in this Set

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 base unit defined unit in a systemof measurement/based on an object or event in physical world -independent of other units SI Base Units: name them for each of the following: time length mass temperature amt. of a substance electric current luminous intesity -TIME: second (frequency of microwae radation given by cesium-133 atom) -LENGTH:meter(distance light travels through a vacuum in 1/299729458 seconds) -MASS:kilogram(defined by platinum-iridium metal cylinder) -TEMPERATURE: kelvin -AMT OF SUBSTANCE: mole (mol) -ELECTRIC CURRENT: ampere (A) -LUMINOUS INTENSITY: candela (cd) ratio for density g/cm^3 density=mass/volume Giga-scientific notation and symbol 10^9, G mega 10^6, M kilo 10^3, k deci 10^-1, d centi 10^-2, c milli 10^-3, m micro 10^-6, u nano 10^-9, n pico 10^-12, p derived unit a unit that is defined by a combination of base units write the scientific notation for 428900000 4.289 x 10^8 multiplying scientific notations: multiply (2x10^3)(3x10^2) multiply numbers 2x3=6 add exponents: 3+2=5 ->6x10^5 dividing scientific notations: divide (9x10^8)/(3x10^-4) divide numbers:9/3=3 add subtract exponents: 8- -4=12 ->3x10^12 conversion factor ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in different units -always equal to one dimensional analysis method of problem-solving that focuses on the units used to describe matter. -ex: if you want to convert temp in *C to Kelvins, focus on the relationship between the units in the two temp scales Accuracy how close a measured value is to an accepted value precision how close a series of measurements are to another equation for percent error %error=( error/accepted value)x100 significant figures includes all the known digits plus ONE estimated one. -72.3=3 sig figs -60.5=3 sig figs -6.20=3 sig figs -0.0253=3 sig figs -4230=3 sig figs -counting numbers/defined constants have infinite number sig figs. substance matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition -aka pure substance -ex: table salt/water physical property a characteristic that can be observed without changing the sample's composition -ex: density, c olor, odor, taste, hardness, melting point, boiling point extensive property -a physical property -dependent upon amount of substance present -length and volume are examples intensive property -physical property -independent of amount of substance present -ex: desntiy is the same no matter how much there is chemical property ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances -ex: ability of iron to form rust when combined with air states of matter: name the three big ones -all matter that exists on earth is either a solid, liquid, or gas physical changes changing a substance without altering its composition chemical change aka "chemical reaction" -changing a substance or substances into new substances law of conservation of mass mass is neither created or destroyed during a chemical reaction-it is conserved. Mass (reactants)=mass(products) mixture combination of two or more substances -each substance retains its individual chemical properties name the types of mixtures heterogenous homogenous solution heterogenous mixture a mixture that does not blend smoothly throughout adn which the individual substances remain distinct -ex: sand/water mixture ex: fresh squeezed orange juice (juice and pulp) -ex: pizza w/ pepperoni and cheese homogenous mixture -constant composition throughout -aka "solutions" -ex: lemonade alloy solid-to solid solution (homogenous mixture of metals, or mixture of metal and nonmetal) name the four techniques to seperate mixtures filtration distillation cyrstallization chromatography filtration technique that used a porous barrier to seperate a solid from a liquid ex: a cone in which the solid/liquid mixture is poured into and the liquid seeps through but the solid does not Distillation seperation technique for mixtures based on differences in teh boiling points of the substances involved -a mixture is heated unti lteh substance w/ the lowest boiling point boils to a vapor that is then condensed to a liquid and collected crystallization seperation technique for mixtures that results in teh formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containg the dissolved substnace. eventually crystals form chromatography seperates the components of amixture on the bases of teh tendancy of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material. element pure substance that cannot be seperated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means -91 occur naturally periodic table: name for the horizontal rows/name for the vertical columns rows: periods columns: groups or families -elements in same group have similar chemical/physical properties COMPOUND combination of two or more different elements that are combined chemically law of definite proportions regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of teh same elements in the same proportion by mass . % by mass=mass of element/mass of compound x100 law of multiple proportions when different compounds are formed by a co mbination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with teh same relative mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers -ex: water, H:O> 2:1 Dalton's atomic theory: -atoms -all atoms of one element are exactly identical in every way -atoms can't be mad, divided, or destroyed -diff. atoms combine in simple whole number ratios to make compounds -in chemical reaction: atoms are seperated, combined, rearranged who was the first person to propose the idea that matter was not infinitely divisible? -first proposed the idea of "atomos" Democritus atom smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element electrons/what tool was used to discover these electrons? negatively charge dparticles that are part of all forms of matter -cathode ray tube Robert Millikan -first determined teh mass of an electron proton subatomic particle carrying a charge equal to but opposite of that of an electron -positive charge of 1+ neutron mass nearly equal to that of a proton's...but it carries no electrical charge atomic number number of protons in an atom atomic#=#protons=#electrons isotopes atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons mass number sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. ex: potassium isotope w/ 19 protons and 20 neutrons has mass number of 39. -Ex: potassium isotope w/ 19 protons and 22 neutrons=41 mass number atomic mass the weighteed average mass of the isotopes of that element. #45 is D ..according to natalie :) haha mole SI base unit used to measure amount of a substance -one mole of anything contains 6.022 x 10^23 representative particles avogadro's number 6.022 x 10^23 molar mass mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance -molar mass of any element is numerically equal to its atomic mass an dhas the units g/mol chugga-chugga-choo choo ..you need a break every once in a while ESTUDIA, NINA, ESTUDIA!! tu vas a estar muy inteligente ya tu continuar a estudiar chemistry. pero tu vas a estar un gato feo y gordo ya tu te casas TRENTO SMITHO. pero ya tu te casas JAMES FRANCO, yo voy a estar te BRIDESMAID alright. thats enough. i need to keep chugga-chugga-in my brain now you see what happens when i get bored. the end.