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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
EN H
2.1
EN C
2.5
EN N
3.0
EN O
3.5
EN F
4.0
EN P
2.1
EN S
2.5
EN Cl
3.0
EN Br
2.8
EN I
2.5
Alkene
C=C
Alkyne
C triple bonded to another C
Alkyl halide
C-X (X = F, Cl, Br, I)
alcohol
C-OH
Phenol
benzene ring-OH
Ether
C-O-C
Epoxide
O bonded to two C, in a triangular ring
Thiol
C-SH
Sulfide
C-S-C
Disulfide
S-S
Amine
C-N
ketone
C-C=O
l
C
C=O in middle
carboxylic acid
C-C=O
l
OH
COOH at end
aldehyde
C-C=O
l
H

CHO at end
ester
C-C=O
l
O-C
amide
C-C=O
l
N
acid chloride
C-C=O
l
Cl
acid anhydride
O O
ll ll
C-C-O- C -C
imine
C=N
Nitrile
C triple bonded to N
nitro
-N=O
l
O
enantiomers
molecules that are nonsuperposable mirror images
chiral
any object not superposable with its mirror image
achiral
object that is not chiral
racemic mixture
equimolar mixture of enantiomers
resolution
separation into enantiomers
orbital
mathematical equation that describes volume of space in which there is probability of finding electron of particular energy
conformational isomers
isomers interconverted by rotation around single bond
anticoplanar
dihedral angle is 180 between two groups on adjacent carbons
gauche
two groups on adjacent carbons whose dihedral angle is about 60
syncoplanar
two groups on adjacent carbons whose dihedral angle is 0
strain
any factor that destabilizes molecular structure by forcing it to deviate from optimum bonding geometry
torsional strain
increase in energy by repulsion of electrons when brought into close proximity of electrons on another atom or group (syncoplanar example)
angle strain
strain caused by nonideal bond angles
ring strain
strain cause by ring, combo of torsional and angle strain
optically active
ability to rotate plain polarized light