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26 Cards in this Set

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What is an enantiomer?
a steroisomer that has a mirror image (mirror images are NOT the same)
What is a chiral carbon?
a chiral carbon is a carbon linked to 4 different things. Anything with a double bond or CH3 is NOT a chiral carbon
formula for maximum number of steroisomers
2(n) = 2 to the N power

N= number of chiral carbons
fisher projections...
a fisher projection is a stick drawing of charbohydrates, each intersection represents a chiral carbon
D-configuration
L-configuration
D configuration is when the lowest number OH group is on the right of the structure, L for the OH group on the left
sugar class for number of carbons in a fisher projection (3,4,5,6)
Triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose
almost all naturally occuring monosaccharides are what configuration?
D
Physical Properties of monosaccharides
solids at room temperature and are highly soluable in water because of their high OH count (lots of hydrogen bonding)
What is a pyranose ring?
A pyranose ring is a six membered ring. ex: glucose
what is a furanose ring?
a five member ring. ex: fructose, ribose, deoxribose
anomeric carbon?
the anomeric carbon is found the furthest to the right in a ring, carbon counting and bonding take place at the anomeric carbon
Oxidation of Carbohydrates
when a carbohydrate can be oxidizied it is called a reducing sugar, this is achieved by combining the carbohydrate with copper (Cu2+)
Ribose and Dexoyribose
Found in DNA and RNA, both are furanose rings, dexoyribose is identicial to ribode excpet for the 2 hydrogens found in the carbon #2 position
Glucose
Most important monosaccharide and most abundant. Blood sugar, used as a sweetener
Galactose
identical to the structure of glucose but carbon 4 is swapped (OH groups - both are alpha or both are beta instead of one being alpha and one being beta)
Fructose
the most common ketohexose, sweetest of the common sugars
Maltose
disaccharide

glucose + glucose (alpha 1-4 linkage)
maltose is a reducing sugar found in germentaing grain
Lactose
disaccharide

glucose + galactose (beta 1-4 linkage)
Sucrose
table sugar

glucose + fructose

bonded by carbon 1 of glucose and carbon 2 of fructose

NOT a reducing Sugar
Invert Sugar
caused by the hydrolsis of sucrose, sweeter then the original surcose
Properties of polysaccharides
not water soluable because of their size
Starches
polymer of only D-glucose units
Amylose
long unbranched chains (alpha 1-4 linkage) can contain between 1000 and 2000 glucose units that form a helix
Amylopectin
random braching of glucose

alpha 1-4 linkage
alpha 1-6 linkage

branching ever 24-30 units
Glycogen
also called animal starch, storage carbohydrate for animals. very similar to amylopectin

alpha 1-4 and 1-6 linkage, however the braching points are closer together then they are in amylopectin

branching every 10-12 units
Cellulose
most important structural polysaccharide and the most abundant organic compound on earth. wood is made up of 50% cellulose which accounts for it's strength and rigidity

300-3000 glucose units in one molecule

BETA LINKAGE (1-4)

animals can't eat it without the bacteria that have the necesary enzymes