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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an enantiomer?
a steroisomer that has a mirror image (mirror images are NOT the same)
What is a chiral carbon?
a chiral carbon is a carbon linked to 4 different things. Anything with a double bond or CH3 is NOT a chiral carbon
formula for maximum number of steroisomers
2(n) = 2 to the N power

N= number of chiral carbons
fisher projections...
a fisher projection is a stick drawing of charbohydrates, each intersection represents a chiral carbon
D configuration is when the lowest number OH group is on the right of the structure, L for the OH group on the left
sugar class for number of carbons in a fisher projection (3,4,5,6)
Triose, tetrose, pentose, hexose
almost all naturally occuring monosaccharides are what configuration?
Physical Properties of monosaccharides
solids at room temperature and are highly soluable in water because of their high OH count (lots of hydrogen bonding)
What is a pyranose ring?
A pyranose ring is a six membered ring. ex: glucose
what is a furanose ring?
a five member ring. ex: fructose, ribose, deoxribose
anomeric carbon?
the anomeric carbon is found the furthest to the right in a ring, carbon counting and bonding take place at the anomeric carbon
Oxidation of Carbohydrates
when a carbohydrate can be oxidizied it is called a reducing sugar, this is achieved by combining the carbohydrate with copper (Cu2+)
Ribose and Dexoyribose
Found in DNA and RNA, both are furanose rings, dexoyribose is identicial to ribode excpet for the 2 hydrogens found in the carbon #2 position
Most important monosaccharide and most abundant. Blood sugar, used as a sweetener
identical to the structure of glucose but carbon 4 is swapped (OH groups - both are alpha or both are beta instead of one being alpha and one being beta)
the most common ketohexose, sweetest of the common sugars

glucose + glucose (alpha 1-4 linkage)
maltose is a reducing sugar found in germentaing grain

glucose + galactose (beta 1-4 linkage)
table sugar

glucose + fructose

bonded by carbon 1 of glucose and carbon 2 of fructose

NOT a reducing Sugar
Invert Sugar
caused by the hydrolsis of sucrose, sweeter then the original surcose
Properties of polysaccharides
not water soluable because of their size
polymer of only D-glucose units
long unbranched chains (alpha 1-4 linkage) can contain between 1000 and 2000 glucose units that form a helix
random braching of glucose

alpha 1-4 linkage
alpha 1-6 linkage

branching ever 24-30 units
also called animal starch, storage carbohydrate for animals. very similar to amylopectin

alpha 1-4 and 1-6 linkage, however the braching points are closer together then they are in amylopectin

branching every 10-12 units
most important structural polysaccharide and the most abundant organic compound on earth. wood is made up of 50% cellulose which accounts for it's strength and rigidity

300-3000 glucose units in one molecule


animals can't eat it without the bacteria that have the necesary enzymes