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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a substance that canflow and therefore take the shape of its container
surface tension
a force that tends to pul adjacent parts of a liquid's surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size
capillary action
the attraction of the surface of a liquid tothe surface of a solid
the process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas
the process by which particles escape from the surface of a nonboiling liquid and enter the gas state
the physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of heat
crystalline solids
most solids are crystalline solids, they consist of crystals
a substance in which the particles are arranged in an orderly, geometric, repeating pattern
amorphous solid
one in which the particles are arranged randomly
the physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addiction of heat.
melting point
the temperature at which a solid become a liquid
supercooled liquids
stubstances that retain certain liquid properties even at temperatures at which they appear to be solid
crystal structure
the total three-deminsional arrangement of particles of a crystal
unit cell
the smallest portion of a crystal lattive that shows the 3-D pattern of the entire lattice
a dynamic condition in which two opposing changed occur at equal rates in a closed system
any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties
the process by which a gas changes to a liquid
Chatelier's principle
when a system at equilibrium is disturbed by application of a stress, it attains a new equilibrium position that minimizes the stress
equilibrium vapor pressure
the pressure exerted by a capor in equilibrium with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature
volatile liquids
liquids that evaporate readily, have relatively weak attractive forces
the conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as at its surface. it occurs when the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
boiling point
the temperature at which the equilibrium capor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
molar heat of vaporization
the amount of heat energy needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point
freezing point
te temperature at which the solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm (760 torr or 101.3 kPa) pressure
molar heat of fusion
the amount of heat energy required to melt one mole of solid at its melting point is its molar heat of fusion
the change of state from a solid directly to a gas is known as sublimation
the change of state from a gas directly to solid (dry ice and iodine)
phase diagram
a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist
triple point
indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid and vapor of the substance can coexist at equilibrium
critical point
indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure
critical temperature
(Tc) is the temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state
critical pressure
(Pc) the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature, the critical pressure of water is 217.75 atm
capable of being dissolved
the dissolving medium in a solution
the substance dissolved in a solution
if the particles in a solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture is constantly stirred or agitated
particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions form mixtures
a substance that dissolves in water to give a soltution that conducts electric current
a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct electric current
solution equilibrium
the physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute ocur at equal rates
saturated solution
a solution that contains the maximum amuont of dissolved solute
unsaturated solution
a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under the existing conditions
supersaturated solution
a solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution contains under tehs ame conditions
the amount of that substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature
the solution process with water as the solvent
liquid solutes and solvents that are not soluble in each other (italian salad dressing)
liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any proportion (alcohol and water)
Henry's Law
the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
the rapid escape of gas from a liquid in whih it is dissolved
a solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules
heat of solution
the net amount of heat energy absorbed or released when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent
a measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
the number of moles of solute in one liter of solution
molarity equation
M = mol