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### 23 Cards in this Set

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 electromagnetic radiation - electric and magnetic fields moving through space as waves, creating visible light, x-rays, microwaves, radiowaves, etc - aka: radiant energy or electromagnetic energy frequency - number of cycles the wave undergoes per second - cycles per second - expressed in units of 1/second - aka: hertz wavelength - distance between any point on a wave and the corresponding point on the next crest or trough - distance the wave travels during one cycle - expressed in meters or nanometers (nm, 10^-9 m) or angstroms Formula: speed of wave speed = frequency x wavelength = (cycles/sec) x (m/cycle) = m/s speed of light = all types of electromagnetic radiation travel at 3.00 x 10^8 m/s = expressed as "c" - (3 sig figures) amplitude - height of the crest (or depth of the trough) of each wave electromagnetic spectrum - range of all possible frequencies of visible light - one end: long wavelengths (short frequencies - other end: short wavelengths (high frequencies) refraction - when a light wave changes its speed (and therefore its direction) when it passes through a phase boundary (i.e. sunlight shining through water) diffraction - the bending of a wave as it strikes the edge of an object SI unit for "energy" - joules - 1 J = 1 kg x m^2 / s^2 photoelectric effect the flow of current when monochromatic light of sufficient frequency shines on a metal plate photons - a quantum of electromagnetic energy (a particle of light) line spectrum - a series of fine lines of individual colors separated by colorless (black) spaces - each element has a unique one ground state the electromagnetic configuration of an atom or ion that is lowest in energy excited state when an electron is in the second or any higher orbit than the ground state stationary state - an energy level of the atom, where the atom does not radiate energy Formula: ' Formula: ' Formula: ' Formula: ' Formula: ' Formula: ' Formula: '