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86 Cards in this Set

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 States of Matter Solid, Liquid, Gas Intermolecular Forces required to create a solid: strong or weak? Strong Intermolecular Forces required for a gas: strong or weak? weak The temperature at which liquid and solid are at equilibrium. Melting Point (or Freezing Point) 0° C/273.15 Kelvin The temperature at which liquid and gas are at equilibrium. Boiling Point 100°Celsius/373.15 Kelvin Enthalpy of Liquid to Solid or Gas to Liquid phase change: negative (-ΔΤ) Enthalpy of Solid to Liquid or Liquid to Gas phase change: positive (+ΔΤ) Enthalpy of Vaporization Amount of energy required to completely convert liquid at boiling point to gas at boiling point. There is no temperature change to the substance during vaporization. Enthalpy of Fusion Amount of energy required to completely convert a substance from a solid at melting point to a liquid at melting point. There is no temperature change during fusion. Enthalpy of Fusion of Water 79.7 cal/g Enthalpy of Vaporization of water ??? Specific Heat of water 1.00 cal/g°C Formula for calculating Heat in a reaction: Heat = mass * ΔΤ * Sp.Heat (cal/g°C) [ΔT = T2 - T1] Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases -There are no attractive forces between particles of gas -Space between gas particles is very large -The average kinetic energy of gas particles is proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the gas. -Gases experience elastic collisions with each other and the walls of the container Ideal Gases gases that obey the kinetic molecular theory Pressure Force per unit area pushing against a surface (P = F/A) Units of Pressure Atmosphere (atm) Millimeters of Mercury (mmHg or Torr) Pascal (Pa) Pounds per Square Inch (psi) 1 atm = 760 mmHg/Torr = 14.7 psi = 101,325 Pa Pressure to Volume Boyle's Law Pressue and Volume are inversely proportional (P α 1/V) PV = k (constant) or P1V1 = P2V2 Volume and Temperature Charles' Law Volume is Directly proportional to Temperature (VαT) V/T = k (constant) or V1/T1 = V2/T2 Pressure and Temperature Gay-Lusacs Law Pressure is directly proportional to Temperature (P α T) P/T = k (constant) or P1/T1 = P2/T2 Combined Gas Law PV/T = k (constant) or P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 Temperature MUST be in Kelvin! moles and Volume Avagadro's Law Volume is directly proportional to moles of Gas (V α n) V/n = k(constant) or V1/n1 = V2/n2 (n = # of moles of gas) Ideal Gas Constant (R) using atm R = 0.0821 L·atm/mol·K Ideal Gas Constant (R) using mmHg R = 62.4 L·mmHg/mol·K Ideal Gas Law PV = nRT Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the components of the mixture. Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ... P(total)V = n(total)RT STP Standard Temperature and Pressure 0°C (273.15 K) and 1atm (760 mmHg) Standard Molecular Volume Volume of one mole of gas at STP 22.4L for ANY gas Dipole-Dipole -Polar molecules are attracted to one another -strength of the attraction is approx. 1 kcal/mol (1-2% of covalent bond strength) -tend to be liquid or solid at room temperature Hydrogen Bonding -special kind of dipole-dipole bond -only present when there is a lone pair of Oxygen, Nitrogen, or Flourine present and a Hydrogen bonded to another O, N or F -stronger than dipole-dipole (1 kcal/mol) London Dispersion Forces -all molecules have this (temporary dipoles) -results from a temporary polarity caused by the random motion of electrons in a molecule -STRONGEST force experienced by NON-POLAR molecules, weakest of intermolecular forces Intermolecular Forces in order or strength Ionic Non-Polar Covalent Hydrogen Bonding Dipole-Dipole London Dispersion Vapor Pressure The partial pressue of gas molecules in equilibrium with liquid. Increases with temperature. Relation of Boiling Point to pressure Directly proportional. BP decreases with lower pressure, increases with higher pressure. Heterogenous Mixture A non-uniform mixture with regions of different composition -murky or opaque -particles often settle or can be filtered -ex. orange juice, house paint Homogenous Mixture Uniform mixture throughout -Homogenous solution: particles are small, solution is transparent -Homogenous colloids: larger particles, murky or opaque Solute The dissolved substance Solvent The substance (usually liquid) the solute is disolved in. Solution Solute + Solvent Solubility maximum amount of a substance that will dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature. Solvation How a solid dissolves in a liquid. Solvation / Hydration the solvent is water Like dissolves Like Liquids with similar intermolecular forces will form solutions. Polar compounds dissolve easily in water. Non-polar compounds dissolve in non-polar liquids. LeChatlier's Principle increase in stress on one end of a system in equilibrium will result in a shift to the side of the system with fewer molecules to relieve the stress and restore equilibrium. Solubility and Pressure Solubility is Directly proportional to Pressure. C/P = k (constant) or C1/P1 = C2/P2 (C = solubility) Formula for calculating Molarity of a solution: M = moles of solute/Liters of solution (mol/L) Formula for calculating Weight/Volume % W/V% = g of solute/mL of solution x 100 Formula for calculating Volume/Volume % V/V% = volume of solute/volume of solution x 100 (units must be the same!) Formula for calculating Parts per Million by weight. PPM = Mass of solute/mass of solution x 10E6 (units must be the same) Formular for calculating parts per million by volume PPM = volume of solute/volume of solution x 10E6 (units must be the same) Formula for Dilution M1 x V1 = M2 x V2 M1 = original concentration (Molarity) V1 = initial volume M2 = desired concentration (Molarity) V2 = final total volume V2-V1 = amount of solvent required for dilution Solid Hydrates ionic compounds that hold water molecules "trapped" in their lattice. ex. Epsom Salt, MgSO4 · 7H2O (each molecule of MgSO4 holds 7 water molecules) Electrolytes An substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water. STRONG ELECTROLYTES: ionic salts, strong acids & bases WEAK ELECTROLYTES: weak acids & bases, non ionic compounds, substances that don't dissolve completely in water NON ELECTROLYTES non-soluable ionic compounds Equivalents of Electrolytes Units used to describe the amount of ions in bodily fluid. Eq = molar mass of ions(g)/# of charges on the ion mEq = 1 Eq/1000 The colligative propertives of a solution depend on the ______ rather than the identity of the solute. Concentration The presence of a solute _______ the vapor pressure of the solution. Lowers. Fewer solvent molecules can escape from the solution surface into the gas phase. The presence of a solute _______ the Boiling Point of the solution. RAISES The presence of a solute ______ the freezing point of a solution. Lowers What determines which solutes will have the greatest effect on the colligative properties of the solution? Number of particles they dissolve into. The more particles, the higher the HP/lower the MP. In osmosis, solvent particles always pass from an area of ______ concentration to an area of _______ concentration? Lower to Greater Osmolarity The sum of all the molarities in the solution. 0.10 NaCl = 0.20 osmol What is the auto-ionization of water? Liquid water dissociates VERY SLIGHTLY into [H30+] and [OH-] ions. H2O(l) + H2O(l) <---> H3O+(aq) + OH-(aq) Forward reaction IS NOT favored. Equilibrium Constant of Water Kw = [H3O+] x [OH-] = 1.00 x 10E-14 Acid Any substance that produces H3O+ ions when added to water. How to calculate concentration of an acid from the pH. H3O+ = 10E-pH How to calculate pH from the contration of the acid. pH = -log[H3O+] Sig Figs for pH Count the number of sig figs for pH AFTER the decimal point only. ex. H3O+ - 2.00 x 10E-4 (3 sig figs) pH = 3.699 (3 sig figs AFTER decimal) How to calculate [OH-] concentration from [H3O+] concentration [OH-] = 1.00 x 10e-14/[H30+] How to calculate [OH-] concentration from pH? First get [H3O+] concentration: 10e-pH = [H3O+] Then use equilibrium constant: [OH-] = 1.00 x 10e-14/[H3O+] acid/base indicators --molecules that change color depending on the amount of [H3O+] present --pH paper, paper coated with universal indicator gives approx pH. --pH meter, electrodes which measure actual pH Definition of Acid (Arrhenius) A substance that provides [H3O+] ions when dissolved in water. Definition of Base (Arrhenius) a substance that provides [OH-] ions when dissolved in water. Definition of Acid (Bronsted-Lowry) a substance that donates an H+ ion. Definition of Base (Bronsted-Lowry) A substance that accepts an H+ ion (donates an electron.) MUST HAVE a lone pair of electrons. Formula for conjugate acids/bases B: + HA --> BH+ + :A- B: is the original base HA is the original acid BH+ is the conjugate acid of B: :A- is the conjugate base of HA Strong Acids complete dissociated Weak Acids do not dissociate completely, reactions are reversible. Conjugate bases of Strong acides are _______ bases. WEAK Conjugate bases of weak acides are ______ bases. Stronger The Six Strong Acids HCIO4 - Perchloric Acid H2SO4 - Sulfuric Acid NHO3 - Nitric Acid HI - Hydroiodic Acid HBr - Hydrobromic Acid HCl - Hydrochloric Acid (all other acids are considered weak) The Strong Bases Group I and II cations + OH- (NaOH, KOH, Mg(OH)2, CA(OH)2) all other bases are considered weak. Polyprotic Acids Acids that have more than one H+ to donate. Each subsequent dissociation will be a weaker reaction. Ex. H2SO4 is a DIPROTIC acid H2SO4 + H2O --> H3O+ + HSO4- HSO4- + H2O <--> H3O+ + SO4-2 Other important Acid/Base reactions: Acid + metal hydroxide = salt + water Acid + Carbonate/bicarbonate ion --> carbonic acid --> CO2 + H2O Acid + NH3 --> ammonium salt(aq) Titration a procedure for determining the concentration of an acid or base. A known concentration of an acid/base is added to an unknown concentration of a base/acid until pH is neutral. The amount of known substance will equal the concentration of the unknown substance. Another word for H3O+ Hydronium ion Another word for OH- Hydroxyl ion