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22 Cards in this Set

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what is chemistry?


2.1
study of matter and the energy associated with physical and chemical changes.
what is matter?
anything that has mass and takes up space.
give examples of macroscopic matter.
all sizes of rocks and stone. gravel. and tiny grains of sand.
give examples of microscopic matter.
animal and plant cells.
what is the particulate level?
to think about the transformation and behavior of molecules is to think at the particulate level.
what makes up all matter?
what are molecules?
tiny particles that make up all matter.
give examples of particule matter.
virus, protein molecule, atom.
what is a distinguishing characterisitc of chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular biology?
They work with microscopic samples, while doing so they think about the particulate-level behavior of their microscopic sample. this helps them to understand what they are seeing in the microscope and why. thereby, this understand helps them control the macroscopic behavior of matter.
What is a model? Why are models used? How is a models structure determined?
a representation of something else. models are used to represent atoms and molecules (entities of the particulate-level). a model's structure is determined by data collected by conducting expermients.
think about globe models and why they are used.
What are the most common types of models? describe the ball-and-stick model. describe the space-filling model.
ball-and-stick models and space-filling models. ball-and-stick models show atoms as balls and electrons as sticks connecting the atoms. space-filling model shous the oute boundaries of the particle in 3-D space.
models are represented by a ____. give an example.
chemical symbol. symbol H is used to represent hydrogen.
what do lewis diagrams tell us that forumlas don't?
lewis diagrams show how the atoms are arranged in a particular molecule. it also tells us the arrangement of electrons in the molecule, which are represented with dashes and dots.
1a. what are the three states of matter? 1b. which substance can be found in all three states?
2.2
1a.solid, liquid, and gas
1b. water
define kinetic molecular theory.
kinetic: motion. molecular: molecule.
----
all matter consists of extremely tiny particles that are in constant motion. speed @ which particles move is faster @ higher temperatures and slower @ lower temperatures.
define particle movement in gas.
shape: variable--same as a closed container.
volume: variable--same as a closed container
particle movement: completely random
takes the shape of container.
define particle movement in liquid.
shape: variable
volume: constant
movement: independent beneath the sufrace, limited to the volume fo the liquid and the shape of the bootom of the container.
takes the shape of container.
define particle movement in solid.
shape: constant--fixed
volume: constant
movement: vibration fixed in position
has its own shape.
physical properties.


2.3
properties of a substance that can be observed na dmeasured without changing the substance chemically.
color, smell, feel, taste
physical change
changes that alter the physical form of matter without changin tis chemical identity.
chemical change
occurs when the chemical identity of a substance is destroyed and a new substance forms
chemical reaction
occurs when the chemical identity of a substance is destroyed and a new substance forms
chemical change
chemical properties0.
the types of chemcial change a substance is able to experience