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41 Cards in this Set

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Definition of Mass
Measurement of amount of matter in an object.
Definition of Weight
Measurement of effect of gravity on an object.
Standard unit of Mass in SI
Kilogram
Definition of Volume
Measurement of amount of space occupied by matter.
Definition of Thermal Energy
Energy associated with the motion of small particles of matter.
Definition of Temperature
Measurement of intensity of thermal energy.
Standard unit of measurement of temperature in SI
Kelvin
Definition of Density
Ratio of mass of an object to the volume occupied.
D=Mass/Volume
Definition of Specific Gravity
Ratio of the density of a substance to that of water at 4 degrees C
sp g= density of liquid or solid
/density of water
Definition of element
Fundamental substance that cannot be broken down to simpler substance by chemical means.
Number of known elements
116
88 occur naturally
Properties of Metals
Solid at room temperature (except mercury), high luster, good conductors, malleable, ductile, high melting point, high density
Properties of Nonmetals
Non lustrous, low melting points, low densities, poor conductors.
Properties of Metalloids
Intermediate between metals and nonmetals.
Definition of Diatomic Molecules
Contain exactly two atoms.

Examples:
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
Definition of Compound
Two or more elements chemically combined in a definite proportion by mass.
Definition of Molecule
Smallest uncharged unit of a compound
Definition on Ion
Positivity or negatively charged atom.
Positively Charged Ion
Cation
Less electrons than protons
Negatively Charged Ion
Anion
More electrons than protons
Ionic Compound
Metal + Nonmetal
(Electron transfer)
Molecular compound
Nonmetal + Nonmetal
(Share electrons)5
Definition of Substances
One type of material, either element or compound
Atomic Number
Number of protons in element
Liquid Elements
Bromine, Mercury
Gas Elements
Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Chlorine,Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xeon, Radon
Definition of "Noble"
Non-reactive
Definition of Potential Energy
Stored energy
Example: Water behind a dam
Definition of Kinetic Energy
Energy that matter has due to motion
Example: A fish swimming
Definition of Physical Properties
Associated with physical existence: can be determined without altering composition
Example: color, odor, taste, physical state, boiling/melting points, density
Definition of Chemical Properties
The ability of a substance to form new substances, either by reaction or decomposition.
Chemical vs Physical Change
Can substance return to original state?
Definition of Physical Change
Changes of physical properties or in state of matter but doesn't form new substance
Examples: change of phase, dissolving, thermal expansion
Definition of Chemical Change
New substances are formed that have different properties and composition: chemical reaction
Examples: burning, rusting, fermentation, tarnishing, digestion
Conservation of Mass
Matter cannot be created nor destroyed
Chemical reaction-mass of reactants = mass of products
Definition of Energy
Capacity of matter to do work
Specific Heat of Water
4.184 J/gC
= 1 calorie
Derived unit of energy in SI
Joule (J)
Definition of Specific Heat
Amount of heat required to change temperature of 1g of substance by 1 degree C
Formula for calculating heat
Mass x Specific Heat x (Tf- Ti)= heat
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy is neither created nor destroyed