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60 Cards in this Set

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chemistry
the study of teh composition, structure, properties, and changes of matter
matter
relates to the elements it contains and how the atoms in those elements are arranged
property
any characteristic that gives a sample of matter its unique identity
molecule
and entity thats composed of 2 or more atoms with the atoms attached to one another in a specific way
states of matter
3 physical states: gas, liquid, solid
pure substances
elements and compounds
law of definite proportions
(law of constant composition)
the elemental compositionof a pure compound is always the same
mixtures
variable compositions either homogeneous or heterogeneous
solutions
homogeneous mixtures
changes of state
physical changes
intensive properties
independant of the amount of matter examined and are used to identify substances
extensive properties
relate to the amount of substance present
scientific method
a dynamic process used to answer questions about our physical world
scientific laws
general rules that summarize how nature behaves
density
mass / volume
precision
how closely different measurements of quantity agree with one another
accuracy
indicates how well a measurement agrees with the accepted "true" value
significant figures
indicate the extent of the uncertainty of the measurement
dimensional analysis
keep track of units as we carry measurements through calculations
conversion factors
ratios constructed from valid relations between equivilant quantities
atoms
basic building blocks of matter, smallest units of an element that can combine with other elements
subatomic particles
the smaller particles which compose atoms
cathode rays
led to the discovery of the electron and allowed its charge-to mass ratio to be measured.
radioactivity
the spontaneous emission of radiation by atoms
electronic charge
1.602 X 10-19
AMU
atomic mass units
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom
mass number
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons
isotopes
atoms of the same element that differ in mass number
atomic weight
can be calculated from isotopes
mass spectrometer
measuring atomic weights
periodic group
the elements in a column
a period
the elements in a horizontal row
metallic elements
left side
nonmetallic elements
upper right side
metalliods
elements along the line separating metals from non-metals
diatomic molecule
contains 2 atoms
chemical formula
composition of a substance
empirical formula
give relative numbers of atoms of each kind
molecular formula
gives the actual numbers of each type of atom in a molecule
structural formulas
show order in which atoms in a molecule are connected
ions
charged particles formed by atoms gaining or losing electrons
iconic compounds
electrically neutral, contain both cations and anions, contain both metallic and non-metallic items
polyatomic ions
atoms joined together that carry a net charge
charges
the total positive charge of the cations in an ionic compound equals the total negative charge of the anions.
chemical nomenclature
the set of rules for naming chemical compounds
oxyanions
polyatomic anions containing oxygen and another element end in ATE or ITE
organic chemistry
the study of compounds that contain carbon
hydrocarbons
simplest class of organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen
alkanes
hydrocarbons in which each carbon atomis attached to four other atoms. names end in ANE
alcohol
an H atom of a hydrocarbon is replaced by an OH functional group.
stoichiometry
the study of the quantitative relationships between chemical formulas and chemical equations
balanced chemical equation
shows equal numbers of atoms of each element on each side of the equation
combination reactions
2 reactants combine to form one product
decomposition reactions
a single reactant forms 2 or more products
cumbustion reactions
in oxygen, a hydrocarbon or related compound reacts with O2 to form CO2 and H2O.
formula weight
equals the sum of the atomic weights of the atoms in its formula
molecualr weight
the formula weight of a molecular formula
Avogrados Number
a mole of any substance
(6.02 x 10 ^23) of formula units of that substance
molar mass
the mass of a mole of atoms, molecules, or ions equals the formula weight of that material expressed in grams