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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Force that pulls nuclei apart
electrostatic
Force that holds nuclei together
nuclear
atomic
bottom number- denotes how many protons in nucleus
mass number
upper number- how many protons and neutrons are in nucleus
true or false
atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons
true
Atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons are called ________
Isotopes of one another. Do not differ in charge.
What is Lavoisier know for?
Developing the law of mass conservation.
What is Proust known for?
Proposed the law of definite proportions.
What is Rutherford known for?
Discoverd the atomic nucleus.
Who discovered the neutron?
Chadwick
A combination of two protons and two neutrons=
alpha particle
beta particle
electron ejected from a nucleus
gamma ray
no electric charge, no mass. Are an extremely energetic form of nonvisible light.
What happens when an electron absorbs a photon of light and gains potential energy?
the electron moves farther from the nucleus.
The transformation from a solid to liquid is called____
melting
The transformation from a liquid to a gas is called____
evaporation
The transformation from a solid directly to a gas is called ___________
sublimation (dry ice)
The transformation from a gas to a liquid is called________
condensation
The lowest possible temperature any substance can have;the temp at which the atoms have no kinetic energy.
absolute zero
Energy due to motion.
kinetic energy
Are atoms made of molecules or are molecules made of atoms?
Molecules are made of atoms.
A kilogram is equal to how many grams?
1,000 grams
What do we call the energy an object has because of its motion?
kinetic energy
How are the particles in a solid arranged differently form those in a liquid?
They are farther apart.
How does the arrangement of particles in a gas differ from the arrangement in liquids and solids?
The particles are farther apart.
The units of density are a ratio of what two quantities?
Mass and volume
What happens to the density of a gas as it is compressed into a smaller volume?
The particles are compressed together and the density increases.
Formula for density
density = mass/volume
A change in which a substance changes its physical properties w/o changing its chemical properties.
physical change
During this kind of change, atoms in a substance are rearranged to give a new substance having a new chemical identity.
Chemical change.
A fundamental material consisting of only one type of atom.
element
A notation that uses the atomic symbol and (sometimes) a numerical subscript to denote how atoms are bonded in an element.
elemental formula
A combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its properties.
heterogeneous mixture
A homogeneous mixture in which the various components are in different phases.
suspension
An element that is shiny, opague, and able to conduct electricity and heat.
metal
An element located toward the upper right of the periodic table that is neither metal nor a metalloid.
nonmetal
A horizontal row in the periodic table.
period
a vertical row in the periodic table.
group
A material in which atoms of different elements are bonded to one another.
compound
A mixture in which the components are so finely mixed that the composition is the same throughout.
homogeneous mixture
A homogeneous mixture in which all components are in the same phase.
solution
A homogeneous mixture in which the various components are in different phases.
suspension
Any group 1 element
alkali
Any group 2 element
alkaline
Any unreactive element
noble gas
How many types of atoms can you expect to find in a pure sample of any element?
one
What is the IUPAC systematic name for the compound KF?
potassium fluoride
What is the chemical formula for the compound titanium dioxide?
TiO2