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60 Cards in this Set

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What is social change?
alteration in varous aspects of a society over time p462
What is the cyclical theory of social change?
historical view of social change in which societies are seen as rising and then falling or as continuously moving back and forth between stages of development p462
What is an ideational culture?
type of culture in Pitirim Sorokin's cyclical theory of social change in which people seek truth and knowledge through faith or religion p463
What is an sensate culture?
type of culture in Pitirim Sorokin's cyclical theory of social change in which people seek truth and knowledge through science p463
What is an idealistic culture?
type of culture in Pitirim Sorokin's cyclical theory of social change that combines both ideational (faith/religion) and sensate (science) characteristics.
What sociologists proposed the cyclical theory of social change?
German historian, Oswald Spengler and Russian American Pitirim Sorokin both proposed versions of a cyclical theory of social change
What is theory of social change Pitirim Sorokin known for?
the cyclical theory of social change in which societies fluctuate between ideational and sensate culture and sometimes reach a middle point call the idealistic culture
What theory of social change did German historian, Oswald Spengler propose?
a cyclical theory of social change in which all societies pass through four stages: childhood, youth, adulthood and old age
What is the principle of immanent change?
according to Pitirim Sorokin's cyclical of social change, the natural tendency of a society's culture to swing back and forth between an ideational and sensate culture p464
What is the natural tendency of a society's structure to swing back and forth between ideational and sensate culture called?
Sorokin referred to it as the principle of immanent change p464
What is the evolutionary theory of social change?
view of social change in which change is seen as a process that moves toward increasing complexity p464
What did early evolutionary theories propose?
evolutionary theorists of the 1800s believed that all societies progress through the same distinct stages of social development 464
Who were some early evolutionary theorists?
Auguste Comte, one the earliest social evolutionists suggested a three stage theory of development, Later Herbert Spencer added that the process of natural selection guides evolution - "survival of the fittest"p465
What do modern evolutionary theories propose?
they hold that societies have a tendency to become more complex but that change can result from may sources and can take many paths. Moder social evolutionists do not assume that change always produces progress nor that progress means the same thing in all societies p466
What is the equilibrium theory of social change?
Talcott Parson's view of social change in which society is likened to a living organism. Change in one part of the system produces change in all other parts as the system attempts to regain balance or equilibrium p466
Who offered the equilibrium theory of social change?
functional theorist Talcott Parsons p466
What is the conflict theory of social change?
theory that views social change as the result of conflicts between groups with opposing interests p468
From whose theory did conflict theory originate?
Conflict theory is rooted in Karl Marx's theory of class conflict, which he developed in the mid-1800s p468
Regarding social change, who are two cyclical theorists?
German Historian Oswald Spengler, and Russian American sociologist Pitirum Sorokin p463
Regarding social change, who are two conflict theorists?
Karl Marx, and Ralf Dahrendorf p468-470
What theory would Karl Marx and Ralf Dahrendorf use to explain social change?
the conflict theory of social change p468-470
What social change theory did Talcott Parson's offer?
the equilibrium theory of social change p466
What social change theory did Oswald Spengler and Pitirium Sorokin support?
cyclical theory of social change 463
What is the cyclical theory of social change including any subtheories?
this theory says that societies goes through various stages of development. Spengler described 4 stages - childhood, youth, adulthood & old age; Sorokin described a fluctuation between ideational cultural (spiritual) & sensate culture (scientific) with idealistic culture in the middle
What is the evolutionary theory of social change including any subtheories?
this theory views change as process that moves towards increasing complexity; early theories saw distinct stages for all societies, &modern theories say that there is a tendency to go along many paths toward increasing complexity
What is the equilibrium theory of social change and who proposed this theory
the equilibrium theory of social change was proposed by Talcott Parsons. He said it occurs as society adapts to maintain stability after a change in one area, involves differentiation and integration
What is the conflict theory of social change including any subtheories?
Karl Marx said that social change results from class conflict and revolution; and Ralf Dahrendorf said that social change results from social conflicts of all forms.
What is a criticism of the cyclical theory of social change?
focused on describing what is, instead of why things happen
What are some criticisms of the evolutionary theory of social change?
it it biased toward the West; does not explain why change occurs, and does not explain short-term changes or wars
What is a criticism of the equilibrium theory of social change?
does not explain widespread social change within or between societies
What are some criticisms of the conflict theory of social change?
does not always lead to revolution, and does not explain change without conflict
Why have social scientists offered different theories to explain the process of social change?
because sociologist have based their theories on different events and theoretical perspectives
In what ways have all theories of social change evolved?
Older theories focused more on describing social change and suggested that all societies follow similar patterns of development. Modern theories provide for different patterns of development and focus more on why societies change.
What is modernization?
process by which a society's social institutions become increasingly complex as the society moves toward industrialization p471
What is modernization theory?
theory of modernization that argues that the more-developed nations of the world were the first to modernize because they were the first to industrialize p471
What is the world-system theory of modernization?
theory of modernization, by Wallerstein, in which spread of capitalism is seen as producing an international division of labor between more-developed & less-developed nations. (the more-developed control the factors of production & the less-developed serve as sources of labor & raw materials) p473
What are core nations?
according to the world-system theory of modernization, those more developed nations that are at the center of the world economy and upon which less developed nations are economically dependent p474
What are peripheral nations?
according to the world-system theory of modernization, those less developed nations that are economically dependent on the core, or more developed nations p473
What is external debt?
the amount owed to foreign individuals, organizations, companies and governments p476
What to modern evolutionary theorists, Gerhard Lenski and Jean Lenski say about social evolution?
Social scientists, Gerhard & Jean Lenski say social evolution takes place because of changes in a society's economic base and its level of technology
What are some positive effects of modernization?
increase in standard of living, longer life expectancies, lower birthrates, higher rates of literacy, decrease in economic & social inequality, more personal comforts, improved infrastructure, electricity & communication technology, & establishment of educational institutions.
What are some negative effects of modernization?
loss of some traditional authority for the family & religion, weaker social relationships & increased feeling of social isolation, moral & ethical questions, health problems, & some environmental problems (pollution)
In general, how does modernization effect the social institution of education?
it improves
How does modernization effect work?
social and economic inequality decreases, less hard labor
In general, how does modernization effect the social institutions of religion and family?
lose traditional authority (weaken)
How do modernization theory and world-system theory differ in the way they view the modernization process in less-developed nations?
Modernization theory argues that less-developed countries will eventually modernize. World-system theory argues that the concentration of wealth & power in core nations slows modernization in less-developed countries.
According to Pitirim Sorokin, how do ideational and sensate cultures differ?
in ideational cultures, truth and knowledge are sought through faith or religion (spiritual), and in sensate cultures, people seek knowledge through science
Briefly describe the equilibrium theory of social change. Why does this theory appeal to many sociologists?
Equilibrium theory argues that a change in one part of the social system produces changes in all other parts of the system. Some sociologists prefer this theory because it explains how societies are able to change yet maintain order.
Why do conflict theorists view social change as inevitable?
because they view conflict as a natural condition in all societies and as causing change
Why did modernization theory have a strong following in the 1950s & 1960s?
because people believed that modernization was a cure for the various social and economic problems in may less-developed nations
What are some moral and ethical issues that modern technolgy has created?
Answers will vary.
issues such as the use of technology to keep terminally ill people alive, ethics of cloning and genetic testing, and working to prevent nuclear war
How do modern evolutionary theories attempt to avoid the criticisms leveled against early evolutionary theories of social change?
Modern theories do not claim that all societies pass through a single set of distinct stages of develpment but instead hold that societies have a tendency to become more complex (in different ways and through different paths)
How are the functionalist and conflict perspectives of social change similar and different?
functionalists focus on how societies maintain order; conflict theorists focus on conflicts between social groups; both view social change as resulting from social disruption
Why do you think that in the world-system theory, the relationship between core nations and peripheral nations is sometimes defined as an international division of labor?
because economic activity in peripheral nations is largely tied to meeting the economic needs of core nations
Why do you think that in the world-system theory, the relationship between core nations and peripheral nations is sometimes defined as an international division of labor?
because economic activity in peripheral nations is largely tied to meeting the economic needs of core nations
What are core nations?
the most powerful developed nations, which form the center, or core of the world economy
Who are some core nations?
US, Canada, Japan, and countries of Western Europe
(China)
Who are some peripheral nations?
poor countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia
What are semiperipheral nations?
Nations that are somewhere in between core & peripheral nations. They may be industrialized but may not play a central role in the world economy. Or they may be only somewhat diversified in terms of their economy or exports.
Who are some semipheral nations?
smaller Western European countries, such as Spain & Portugal, and newly developed nations of Asia, such as South Korea and Taiwan