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60 Cards in this Set

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What is population?
number of people living in an area at a particular time p406
What is demography?
the scientific study of human populations p406
What is birthrate?
annual number of live births per 1,000 members of a population p406
What is fertility?
actual number of births per 1,000 women of childbearning age in a population p406
What is fecundity?
biological potential for reproduction p406
What is mortality?
number of deaths in a society p408
What is the death rate?
annual number of deaths per 1,000 members of a population p408
What is the infant mortality rate?
annual number of deaths among infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births in a population p408
What is life expectancy?
average number of years a person born in a particular year can be expected to live, p408, 223
What is migration?
movement of people from one specified area to another p409
What is migration rate?
annual difference between in-migration and out-migration p409
What is growth rate?
birthrate minus the death rate p410
What is doubling time?
number of eyars necessary for a population to double in size, given its current rate of growth p412
What is the Malthusian theory?
theory of population proprosed by Thomas Malthus, in which population increases geometrically and the food supply increase arithmetically. Because the food supply cannot keep up with the expanding population, Malthus predicted widespread starvation would result p415
What is the demographic transistion theory?
theory of population in which population patterns are said to be tied to a society's level of technological development. Theoretically, a society's population would go through three distinct stages p416
What is zero population growth?
point at which nearly equal birthrates and death rates produce a population growth rate of zero p417
What is family planning?
conscious decision by married couples to have only a certain number of children p418
What is the Malthusian theory?
theory of population proprosed by Thomas Malthus, in which population increases geometrically and the food supply increase arithmetically. Because the food supply cannot keep up with the expanding population, Malthus predicted widespread starvation would result p415
What is the demographic transistion theory?
theory of population in which population patterns are said to be tied to a society's level of technological development. Theoretically, a society's population would go through three distinct stages p416
What are three factors that affect the size and structure of populations?
birthrate, deathrate, and migration rate
What are some of the major categories of programs that have been created to help control population growth?
family planning, economic improvements, and antinatalism
What is urbanization?
the concentration of the population in cities p421, 76
What is a city?
a permanent concentration of relatively large numbers of people who are engaged in mainly nonagricultural pursuits p421
What is overurbanization?
situation in which more people live in the city than the city can support in terms of jobs and facilities p424
What is urban ecology?
approach that examines the relationship between people and the urban environment p425
What is the concentric zone model?
model of urban structure proposed by Ernest W. Burgess in which the typical industrial city is said to spread outward from the center in a series of circles within circles p426
Who proposed the concentric zone theory?
Ernest W. Burgess p426
What is the multiple nuclei model?
model of urban structure proposed by Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman in which the city is said to have a number of specialized centers devoted to different types of land use p426
What two men proposed the multiple nuclei theory?
Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman p426
What is the sector theory?
model of urban structure proposed by Homer Hoyt in which the growth of a city is said to occur in wedge-shpaed sectors that extend outward from the center tothe edge of the city p426
Who proposed the sector theory of urban structure?
Homer Hoyt p426
What is urban sprawl?
phenomenon characterized by poorly planned development on the edge of cities and towns p428
What is the urban anomie theory?
theory of city life in which the city is seen to be an anonymous and unfriendly place that carries serious negative consequences for those who live there p428
What is the subculture theory?
theory of city life in which the characteristics of the city are said to encourage rather than discourage the formation of primary group relationship sp431
Who was Ernest W. Burgess?
sociology that proposed the concentric zone model
Who was Homer Hoyt?
sociologist who proposed the sector theory of urban structure p426
Who was Louis Wirth?
sociology who proposed the urban anomie theory
Who was Herbert J. Gans?
a sociologist that proposed five identifiable lifestyles that can be found among urban dwellers: cosmopolites, unmarried or childless, ethnic villagers, deprived and the trapped. p430
Who was Claude S. Fischer?
sociologist that explained the nature of city life with his subcultural theory in his work, "To Dwell Among Friends" He said the characteristics of the city encourage rather than discourage the formation of primary group relationships.
What is the compositional theory?
theory of city life that studies how the composition of a city's population influences life in the city. Individuals protect themselves from the anonymity of the city by forming primary groups with others who are like themselves, supported by Gans & other criticizers of Wirth's urban anomie theory p430
What is the basic pattern of the city growth proposed by the concentric zone model?
city spreads outward from center, resulting in a series of circles or zones
What is the basic pattern of the city growth proposed by the sector model?
city grows in wedge-shpaed sectors outward from center to edges of city
What is the basic pattern of the city growth proposed by the multiple-nuclei model?
city develops around several centers of activity, or "nuclei" devoted to specialized land use
How does the anomie theory characterize a city?
a city is anonymous and unfriendly and carries negative consequences for residents
How does the compositional theory characterize a city?
the greater diversity of city residents leads to a greater variety of lifestyles
How does the subcultural theory characterize a city?
people can find others with similar interests in diverse cities; some people form close ties
Summarize the evolution of cities. Differentiate between preindustrial and industrial cities.
Cities arose with the Agricultural Revolution. Preindustrial cities were small. People were segregated by occupation, classes or castes. Unsanitary conditions led to high death rates. Industrial cities are large, have large central business districts, & life does not revolve around family.
Compare the views of urban ecology presented by Burgess, Hoyt, and Harris & Ulmann.
Burgess suggest that the typical industrial city spreads outward in a series of zones. Hoyt argues that growth occurs outward in wedge-shaped sectors. Harris & Ullman suggest that cities develop around several distinct nuclei, each devoted to specialized land use.
What are the three demographic variables that determine the size of a population and the population's composition and distribution?
birthrate, death rate, and migration rate
Describe how cities evolved throughout history and why urbanization is such a recent event.
Cities evolved as the Agricultural Revolution produced a surplus of food and freed large numbers of people from agricultural activities. Urbanization is a recent even because it did not occur until the Industrial Revolution enabled cities to grow at a significant rate.
What models do sociologists use to explain the structure of cities?
concentric zone, sector, and multiple nuclei models
What social problems has urbanization helped to create?
crime, overcrowding, and pollution
Explain why birthrates and death rates are considered to be crude measures.
because they do not take into account varying rates among population subgroups
How do the push and pull factors of migration differ? Give an example of each factor.
Push factors encourae movement out of an area; can include religious or political persecution, racial discrimination, overpopulation, and other reasons. Pull factors encourage movement into an area; can include religious and political freedom and economic opportunities
What criticisms have been leveled at the Malthusian population theory?
it fails to account for advances in agriculture, technology and birth control
What criticisms have been leveled at the demographic transition theory?
fails to address how rapid population increases might hamper the modernization of developing nations.
Where were the first cities located? (How have geographic factors influenced the development of cities?)
Cities first arose on the fertile banks of rivers
Why is infant mortality especially of interest to sociologists?
The infant mortality rate provides a general measure of the overall health and quality of live in a society.
What is life expectancy?
average number of years a person born in a particular year can expect to live
What is population?
the number of people living in an area at a particular time