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69 Cards in this Set

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A watchdog that informs you when a counter crosses a defined threshold. An ________ is an automated attendant looking for high or low values, and can consist of one or more counter/instance-based ________ definitions.
alert
A definition of what a normal load looks like on a computer system; it provides a point of comparison against which you can measure future system behavior.
baseline
A system resource or device that limits a system's performance. Ideally, the use should be the _________ on a system, not any hardware or software component.
bottleneck
A named aspect or activity that the Performance tool uses to measure or monitor some aspect of a registered system or application object.
counter (or performance counter)
A log that records measurements on selected counters at regular, defined intervals. _________ _______ allow you to define exactly which counters are recorded (based on computer, object, counter or instance).
Counter log
A system bottleneck caused by a limitation in a computer's disk subsystem, such as a slow drive or controller, or a heavier load than the system can handle.
disk bottleneck
A system occurrence that is logged to a file.
event
A system utility that displays one of three event logs: System, Security, and Application, wherein logged or audited events appear. The ______ ____ is often the first stop when monitoring a system's performance or seeking evidence of problems because it is where all unusual or extraordinary system activities and events are recorded.
Event Viewer
A programming term that indicates an internal identifier for some kind of system resource, object, or other component that must be accessed by name (or through pointer). In Task Manager, the number or _______, threads, or processes can indicate that an ill-behaved application is running on the system.
handle/handles
A selection of a specific object when more than one is present on the monitored system; for example, multiple CPUs or hard drives.
instance
A system bottleneck caused by a lack of available physical or virtual memory that results in system slowdown or (in extreme cases) an outright system crash.
memory bottleneck
A system bottleneck cause by axcessive traffic on the network medium to which a computer is attached, or when the computer itself generates excessive amounts of such traffic.
network bottleneck
A component of the Windows 2000 environment; objects range from devices to services to processes.
object
An environment that defines the resources available to threads,the executable parts of an application. ______ define memory available, show the ________ page directory is stored in physical memory, and other information that the CPU needs to work with a thread. Each _______ includes its own complete,private 2GB address space and related virtual memory allocations.
process
A system bottleneck that occurs when demands for CPU cycles from currently active processes and the operating system cannot be met, usually indicated by high utilization levels or processor queue lengths greater than or equal to two.
processor bottleneck
The utility that tracks registered system application objects, where each such object has one or more counters that can be tracked for information about system behavior.
System Monitor
In the Windows 2000 run-time environment, a ________ is the minimum unit of system execution and corresponds roughly to a task within an application, the Windows 2000 kernel, or within some other major system component. Any task that can execute in the background can be considered a _______(for example, run-time spell checking or grammar checking in newer versions of MS Word), but it's important to recognize that applications must be written to take advantage of _______(just a the operating system itself is).
thread, threading
A log that records data when only certain events occur. _____ _____ record nonconfigureable data from a designated provider when an event occurs.
Trace Log
The lowest priority that a thread may be assigned, based on the priority assigned to its process.
base priority
An application capable of running under the OS/2 subsystem or in a virtual DOS machine. If the OS/2 subsystem is available, it will be used by default.
bound application
A process spawned within the context of some Windows 2000 environment subsystems (Win32, OS/2, or POSIX) that inherits operating characteristics from its parent subsystem, and access characteristics from the permissions associated with the account that requested it to be launched.
child process
The collection of Registry values and run-time environment variables in which a process or thread is currently running.
context
The act of unloading the context information for one process and replacing it with the information for another, when the new process comes to the foreground.
context switch
In operating system terminology, this refers to a section of code that can only be accessed by a single thread at any one time, to prevent uncertain results from occuring when multiple threads attempt to change or access values included in that code at the same time.
critical section
A general term used to describe the reasonably thorough DOS emulation capabilities provided in a Windows 2000 virual DOS machine (VDM)
DOS operating environment
A collection of virtual procedure calls, also called procedure stubs, that provide a well-defined way for applications to call on syvices or server processes within the Win32 environment. DLLs have been a consistent aspect of Windows since Windows 2.0.
dynamic link library (dll)
A mini-operating system running within Windows 2000, providing an interface between applications and the kernel. Windows 2000 has three ________ ________: Win32, OS/2, and POSIX, but only Win32 is required for Windows 2000 to function.
environment subsystem
a set of kernel-mode functions that controls security, system I/O, memory management, and other low-level services.
Executive Services
A queue for each process, maintained by the Win32 subsystem, that contains the messages sent to the process from the user, directing its threads to do something.
input message queue
The part of Windows 2000 composed of system services that interact directly with applications; it controls all application contact with the computer.
kernel
Systems running in ______ ______ are operating within a shared memory space and with access to hardware. Windows 2000 Executive Services operates in __________ _______.
kernel mode
A technique to permit processes to exchange data in the Windows 2000 run-time environment. LPCs define a rigorus interface to let client programs request services, and to let server programs respond to such requests.
local procedure call (LPC)
Sharing processor time between threads. ___________ may be preemptive (the operating system may bump one thread if another one really needs access to the processor), or cooperative (one thread will retain control of the processor until its turn to use it is over). Windows 2000 uses premptive _________ except in the context of the WOW operating environment, because Windows 3.x applications expect cooperative _______.
multitasking
A process with more than one thread running at a time.
multithreaded process
The Windows 2000 environment subsystem that createds a run-time process, and imbues that child process with characteristics associated with that parent's interfaces, capabilities, and run-time requirements.
parent process
The Windows 2000 subsystem used for running OS/2 applications and emulation of OS/2 version 1.x (character mode only)
OS/2 subsystem
The Windows 2000 subsystem used for running POSIX applications.
POSIX subsystem
An environment in which the executable portion of a program runs, defining its memory usage, which processor to use, its objects, and so forth. All _______ have at least one thread. When the last thread is terminated, the ________ teminates with it. Each user-mode _______ maintains its own map of the virtual memory area. One ______ may create another, in which case the creator is the parent ________ and the created _________ is the child _________.
processes, process
all blanks are same answer
A DOS term that describes a mode of operation for x86 CPUs wherein they can address only 1 MB of memory, broken into 16 64-KB segments, where the lower ten such segments are available to applications (the infamous 640 KB), and the upper six segments are available to the operating system or to special application drivers-or,for Windows 2000, to a VDM
real mode
An operating environment that emulates another operating system (such as OS/2 or POSIX) to provide support for applications created for that environment.
subsytem
Any of a special class of objects withing the Windows 2000 environment that are used to synchronize and control access to shared objects and critical sections of code.
synchronization object
The executable portion of a program, whith a priority based on the priority of its process--user ________ cannot exist external to a process. All _______ in a process share that process's context.
thread
A device driver used by virtual DOS machines (VDMs) to provide an interface between the application, which expects to interact with a 16-bit _______ _______, and the 32-bit _______ ______ that Windows 2000 provides.
Virtual device driver (VDD)/device drivers
A Win32 application that emulates a DOS environment for use by DOS and Win16 applications.
virtual DOS machine (VDM)
The collection of components, internfaces, and capabilities that permits Win16 applications to run within a VDM within the Win32 subsystem on Windows 2000.
Win16 operating environment
The formal name for the collection of components, interfaces, and capabilities that permits the Win32 subsystem to provide native support for well-behaved 16-bit Windows applications.
Win16-on Win32 subsystem (WOW)
The setting on a Registry value entry that defines the data format of the stored information.
data type
The activity of forcing the memory-resident copy of the Registry to be written to files stored on the hard drive. A _______ occurs at shutdown, when forced by an application, or just after a Registry alternation.
flush
A discrete body of Registry keys, subkeys, and values stored in a file.
hive
The Registry key contains the value entries that control the relationships between file extension (and therefore file format types) and applications. This key also supports the data used in object linking and embedding (OLE),COM object data, and file-class association data. This key actually points to another Registry key named HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Classes, and provides multiple points of access to make itself easily accessible to the operating system itself and to applications that need access to the compatibility information already mentioned.
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
This Registry key contains the value entries that control the currently active hardware profile. The contents of this key are built each time the system is booted. This key is derived from data stored in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\Current ControlSet\HardwareProfiles\Current subkey. This key exist to provide backward-compatibility with Windows 95/98 applications.
HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG
This Registry key contains the value entries that define the user environment for the currently logged on user. This key is built each time a user logs on to the system. The data in this key is derived from the HKEY_USERS key and the Ntuser.dat and Ntuser.man files of a user's profile.
HKEY_CURRENT_USER
This Registry key contains the value entries that control the local computer. This includes hardware devices, device drivers, and various operating system components. The data stored in this key is not dependent on a logged on user or the applications or processes in use.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
This Registry key contains the value entries that define the user environments for all users who have ever logged on to this computer. As a new user logs on to the system, a new subkey is added for that user, which is either built from the default profile stored in this key or from the roaming user profile associated with the domain user account.
HKEY_USERS
A top-level division of the Registry. There are five keys in the Windows Registry. A key can contain subkeys.
key
The state of the Registry stored in one of the control sets when the last successful user logon was performed. If the Registry is damaged in such a way that it will not fully boot or will not allow a user to log on, the LKGC option can restore the system to a previous state. Keep in mind and any changes made to the system between the time the LKGC was stored and its use to restore the system will be lost.
Last Known Good Configuration (LKGC)
A registry value entry data type that stores data in binary format.
REG_BINARY
A Registry value entry data type that stores data in binary, hex, or decimal format.
REG_DWORD
A Registry value entry data type that stores data in expandable text-string format that contains a variable that is replaced by an application when it is used (for example, %Systemroot%\File.exe
REG_EXPAND_SZ
A Registry value entry data type that stores data in text-string format that contains multiple human-readable values separated by null characters.
REG_MULTI_SZ
A Registry value entry data type that stores data in text-string format.
REG_SZ
The 16-bit Registry editor. Regedit offers global searching and combines all of the keys into a single display. It can be used to perform searches, add new subkeys and value entries, alter the data in value entries, and import and export keys and subkeys.
Regedit
The 32-bit Registry editor. _______ offers control over key and value entry security, but displays each root key in a separate window. ________ also offers a read only mode so you can explore the Registry withou the possibility of accidentally altering value entries. It can be used to perform searches, add new subkeys and value entries, alter the data in value entries, and import and export keys and subkeys.
Regedt32
The hierarchical database of system configuration data, which is essential to the health and operation of a Windows 2000 System.
Registry
The database of user accounts, group memberships, and security related settings.
(SAM) Security Accounts Manager
A division of a Registry key, such as HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE. A _______ can contain other subkeys and value entries.
subkey
A file created by Windows 2000 to record Registry changes. These files, with a .log extension, are used to verify that changes to the Registry are made successfully.
transaction log
The actual data stored by a value entry.
value
A named Registry variable that stores a specific value or data string. A Registry ________ ________'s name is typically a multiword phrase without spaces and with title capitalization.
value entry