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### 31 Cards in this Set

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 statistics science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze and draw conclusions from data a variable characteristic or attribute that can assume different values data values each value in a data set (datum) descriptive statistics consists of the collection, organization, summarization and presentation of data a population consists of all subjects (human or otherwise) that are being studied a sample group of subjects selected from a population hypothesis testing decision making process for evaluating claims about a population based on information obtained from samples inferential statistics generalizing from samples to populations, performing estimations and hypothesis tests, determining relationships among variables and making predictions qualitative variables variables that can be placed into distinct categories, according to some characteristic or attribute quantitative variables variables that are numerical and can be ordered or ranked discrete variables variables that can be counted continuous variables infinite number of values between any 2 specific values. Obtained by measuring, often include fractions/decimals. nominal measurement (name) mutually exclusive (non-overlapping), exhausting categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed on the data ordinal measurement (grades, ranking, judging) categories that can be ranked; however, precise differences between the ranks do not exist interval measurement (score, temperature) ranks data and precise differences between units of measure do exist. no meaningful zero. ratio measurement (number) possesses all characteristics of interval measurement and there exists a true zero. True ratios exist when the same variable is measure on 2 different members of the population Random sampling selected by using chance methods or random numbers systematic sampling numbering each subject of the population and then selecting every __th subject stratified sampling dividing the population in to groups (strata) according to some characteristic that is important to the study then sampling from each group cluster sampling divided into groups by some means such as geographic area or schools in a large district, then researcher randomly selects clusters observational studies researchers merely observe what is happening or what has happened int he past and tries to draw conclusions based on these observations experimental studies researcher manipulates one of the variables and tries to determine how the manipulation influences other variables independent variable the variable being manipulated (explanatory) dependent variable result (outcome) confounding variable influences dependent variable but cannot be separated from independent variable ambiguous averages person can use one of the measure of averages that leans most towards their advantage change the subject different values are use to represent the same data (increase of only 3%, but 3% is 6 million dollars) detached statistics a statistic where no comparison is made (this snack has 1/3 fewer calories! ... fewer than what?) implied connections claim that attempts to imply connections that do not exist misleading graphs graphs drawn inappropriately faulty questions questions in a survey that are influential to sway towards a specific answer