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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze and draw conclusions from data
a variable
characteristic or attribute that can assume different values
data values
each value in a data set (datum)
descriptive statistics
consists of the collection, organization, summarization and presentation of data
a population
consists of all subjects (human or otherwise) that are being studied
a sample
group of subjects selected from a population
hypothesis testing
decision making process for evaluating claims about a population based on information obtained from samples
inferential statistics
generalizing from samples to populations, performing estimations and hypothesis tests, determining relationships among variables and making predictions
qualitative variables
variables that can be placed into distinct categories, according to some characteristic or attribute
quantitative variables
variables that are numerical and can be ordered or ranked
discrete variables
variables that can be counted
continuous variables
infinite number of values between any 2 specific values.

Obtained by measuring, often include fractions/decimals.
nominal measurement

mutually exclusive (non-overlapping), exhausting categories in which no order or ranking can be imposed on the data
ordinal measurement
(grades, ranking, judging)

categories that can be ranked; however, precise differences between the ranks do not exist
interval measurement
(score, temperature)

ranks data and precise differences between units of measure do exist. no meaningful zero.
ratio measurement

possesses all characteristics of interval measurement and there exists a true zero. True ratios exist when the same variable is measure on 2 different members of the population
Random sampling
selected by using chance methods or random numbers
systematic sampling
numbering each subject of the population and then selecting every __th subject
stratified sampling
dividing the population in to groups (strata) according to some characteristic that is important to the study then sampling from each group
cluster sampling
divided into groups by some means such as geographic area or schools in a large district, then researcher randomly selects clusters
observational studies
researchers merely observe what is happening or what has happened int he past and tries to draw conclusions based on these observations
experimental studies
researcher manipulates one of the variables and tries to determine how the manipulation influences other variables
independent variable
the variable being manipulated

dependent variable

confounding variable
influences dependent variable but cannot be separated from independent variable
ambiguous averages
person can use one of the measure of averages that leans most towards their advantage
change the subject
different values are use to represent the same data

(increase of only 3%, but 3% is 6 million dollars)
detached statistics
a statistic where no comparison is made

(this snack has 1/3 fewer calories! ... fewer than what?)
implied connections
claim that attempts to imply connections that do not exist
misleading graphs
graphs drawn inappropriately
faulty questions
questions in a survey that are influential to sway towards a specific answer