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47 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
simplified drawing of an object
pictograph
a __________ puts together simplified drawings of objects to represent abstract concepts
ideograph
a __________ uses the sounds of the symbols to make up compound words
phonograph
a _________ is when 2 or more pictographs are put together and the first sounds of things are sounded out to represent the word -
"egg + cell + ant = excellent";
precursor of phonetics.
rebus
how was writing first used in historical times?
- show ownership
- contents of containers
- legal documents/business transactions
Earliest writing system in Sumeria
Cuneiform
circular stone tablet found in Crete, associated with the Minoan Culture. The inscriptions have not yet been deciphered.
Phaistos disc
this guy deciphered hieroglyphics in *[1822]
Jean-François Champollion
substrate made from a weed, very brittle and could only be written on one side
papyrus
substrate made from animal skins, was able to be folded and written on both sides
parchment
Appearance of a writing system & alphabet is mainly based on the ________ and _________
substrate

writing implement used
why did different cultures write on different substrates?
it depended on what natural resources were readily available
in hieroglyphics, the names of Pharaohs were put in _________ to symbolize eternal life
cartouches
what is possible with a written alphabet that was not possible with an oral tradition?
the ability to communicate with someone who was not living in the present day
why was the Phoenician alphabet widely adopted in the ancient world?
- The Phoenicians were extensive traders on the Mediterranean Sea
- There were only 22 characters to learn
- The alphabet was phonetically based, making it easy to learn to read and write.
______ is another name for a book
codex
papermaking originated in ______
China
_________ was made from the dry, bleached skin of animals
parchment
_________ was the Roman lettering style that was condensed to save space.
Rustica
__________ was the language that early bibles were copied in
Latin
______________ were used in manuscripts to introduce the text and to also show a simplified drawing of the bible story and as a way for the scribe to show his/her religious devotion.
Illuminated Caps
During the Middle Ages, the isolation of feudal societies and the danger of travel led to the development of ________
regional lettering styles
Under Charlamagne's rule, what important typographic accomplishment took place and why was it important?
Carolingian Hand was established as the standard copying text, in hopes of further uniting Charlamagne's Empire.
what lettering hand was marked by great variations in letterforms?
Romanesque
when and where was rag paper introduced in Europe?
1100. Italy.
what resettled in cities after the Dark Ages?
Universities and Guilds
uses the first sound of the object represented to sound out the word
phonogram
important before the creation of writing; allows pre-literate society to store information
mnemonics
the guy who developed the Carolingian lettering hand
Alcuin of York
where we see most of the Roman inscriptions today
Triumphal arches
a campaign funded by the Pope, whose intention was to save the Holy Lands from the infidels
the Crusades
lettering that started in Ireland
Celtic uncials
Tall, condensed angular letters, originated in Germany
Gothic
Round, open style of lettering. Originated in France.
Rotunda or Carolingian
this lettering innovation started in the interest in saving paper. originated in Ireland
Semi-uncials
means "as the ox plows"
boustrophedon
group associated with early books, compared versions of the Bible text
Early Christians
lettering written on guidelines that were one inch apart
Uncials
version of hieroglyphics; evolved letters that mean "priestly writing"
Heriatic script
version of hieroglyphics; evolved letters that mean "of the people"
Demotic Script
roughly the year that Charlamagne was in power
800 AD
a culture who added characters to an early version of out alphabet to represent vowels
Ancient Greeks
A lettering style that resembled a woven piece of fabric on the page when it was written together
Gothic Textura
the place where ancient manuscripts were preserved by copying
Scriptoriums in Monasteries
the monk who Charlamagne made responsible for creating a legible Carolingian hand for the other monks to learn and use in copying books
Alcuin of York
what hand was Littera Antigua based on?
Carolingian
Why was Littera Antigua called what it was?
renaissance scholars wrongly believed that the ancient texts copied under Charlamagne were the original ancient text, hence the name "antigua"