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67 Cards in this Set

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What is the respiratory function?
To sypply the body with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide
What are the components of respiration?
Ventiliation, Externaml Respiration, Gas Transport, Internal Respiration
Describe the conducting zone.
cleanse, humidfy and warm incoming air (nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi)
Describe the respiratory zone.
gas exchange (brochioles, alveolar ducs, alveoli)
What is the function of the nose?
passageway for air; warms, filters, moistens and cleanses air
What is the function of the paranasal sinuses?
they're formed from frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones; resonating chambers for sound, lighten skull
What is rhinitis?
inflammation of the nasal mucosa; caused by cold viruses, strep bacteria and allergens, excessive mucus production and postnasal drip, can spread to eyes and sinuses
What is sinusitis?
inflamed sinuses; blockage of passages between nasal cavity and sinuses.. can cause sinus headache
What are the three pharynx?
nasopharynx (air only) , oropharynx (food and air) , larynogopharynx (food and air) - houses voicebox (larynx)
Describe the larynx.
voice box -- houses vocal folds for sound production ; attached to hyoid bone and continuous with trachea; framework of nine cartilages
What is epiglottis and laryngitis?
inflammation of the epiglottis - caused by haemophilus influenzae ; inflammation of the larynx
inflammation of vocal folds (hoarseness) ; can be caused by dry air , bacterial infections, inhaling irritation chemicals
Describe the trachea.
windpipe ; extends through mediastinum ; held open by C-shaped cartilage, houses ciliary escalator , carina (last cartilage) ; heimlich maneuver used to clear foreign objects from trachea
Describe the bronchial tree.
trachea branches to right and left primary bronchi; primary bronchi branch repeatedly; bronchioles
What is the alveoli lines with?
respiratory membrane ; basal lamina of capillaries fuses with that of alveoli
What is teh alveoli covered with?
pulmoary capillaries ; single layer of squamous epithelial cells over a thin basal lamina
What kind of cells are scattered throughout the alveoli?
cubiodal cells; secrete surfactant -- reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid and prevents collapse of alveoli
In the respiratory membrane, gas exchange occurs by ?
simple diffusion
How many lobes does the right lung have? the left?
three ; two
what is the pleura?
coverings of lungs
What do the pleura secrete?
fluid as lubricant between layers
What does the pleura prevent?
organ interference and spread of infection
What is pleurisy and pleural effsion?
inflammation of pleura - excess fluid inhibits breathing; collection of fluid in pleural cavity
What foes pulmonary ventilation depend on during breathing?
pressure
What is atmospheric pressure at sea level?
760 mmHg (1 atm)
Describe intrapulmonary pressure
presure in alveoli ; rises and falls with breathing, but always equalizes with atmospheric pressure
Describe intrapleural pressure.
pressure between the pleura; rises and falls with breathing but alwasy remains about -4 mmHg
Describe lung collapse
occurs if intrapleural and intrapulmonary pressure become equal
What is lung collapse caused by?
mucus plugged bronchiole, pneumonia, air in intrapleural space
According to pulmoary ventilation and Boyle's law, as volume increases, what happens to pressure?
decreases
what is inspiration?
diapharm contracts and moves down, chest cavity volume invreases, pressure decreases, air flows in
What is expiration?
muscles relax, volume decreases, pressure increases, air flows out
Ventilation is normal , quiet inspiration that brings in how much gas?
500 ml
what does alveolar surface tension result from
attractive forces between water molecules
how do surgactant reduce surface tension?
by getting between water molecules
lack of surfactant causes what?
infant respiratory distress syndrome (premature babies); smoking lessens surfactant
Lung compliance is determined by?
elasticity of lung tissue and surface tension of alveoli; the more the lungs expand, the greater the compliance
Pulmonary function tests helps what?
evaluate respiratory function , can help distinguish between diseases
what is a spirometer?
measures amount of air moved under varying conditions
What is Tidal Volume (TV) ?
air moved during quite breathing (500 ml)
What is Reserve volume?
air moved forcefully after normal tidal breath
What is residual volume?
air remaining in the lungs after most forceful expansion (1200 ml)- keeps alveoli open
What is the minute or total ventilation pulmonary function test?
amount of gas flowing into and out of respiratory tract in 1 min.
What is the forced vital capacity pulmonary function test?
deep breath forcefully exhaled
What is the forved expiratory volume pulmonary function test?
amount of air expelled during specific time intervals of FVC
What are the non-respiratory air movements?
coughing and sneezing (clear passages) - laughing and crying (emotional) - hiccups and yawning (reflexive)
What is Dalton's Law?
in gas mixtures such as air, each gas contributes a pressure proportional to its concentration
How much does oxygen makes up air particles?
20 %
What is Henry's law?
when gas is in contact with a liquid, it will dissolve in proportion with its concentration; gas solubility also decreases as temp. increases
Describe external respiration.
gas exchange in the lung;
What is external respiration influenced by?
partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities
What does external respiration occur at?
respiratory membrane
Where does gas exchange in internal respiration?
tissues
What is internal respiration influenced by , and where does it occur?
gas partial pressures and tissue perfusion, capillary membrane
Each hemoglobin carries how many oxygen molecules?
four
Only what percent of oxygen is given up to tissues under resting conditions?
25 %
Decreases in pH decreases what ability to carry oxygen
hemoglobins
What percentage of carbon dioxide is dissolved in plasma, binded to hemoglobin, as bicarbonate ions in plasma?
7- 10 % ; 20 - 30 % ; 60 - 70 %
What is asthma?
episodes of coughing, wheezing, dyspnea and chest tightness ; periods of remission, initial inflammatory response followed by brochoconstriction;
can by brought on by allergens
What is tuberculosis?
infectious disease (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) ; causes scar tissue in respiratory tract, must be treated with multiple drugs and can be fatal
What percent of smokes have lung cancer?
90 %
How is lung cancer treated?
surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
What is cystic fibrosis?
genetic disease - most common lethal genetic disease in North America; secretions of abnormally thick mucus ; requires a lung transplant
After time, the respiratory system loses...
compliance, elasticity, effective protective mechanisms
What is obstructive emphysema?
deterioration and enlargement of alveoli
What is chronic bronchitis?
inhaled irritants lead to mucus production, airway becomes obstructed; common in smokes
What happens after execrise to your respiratory system?
breathing deeper and more vigorous, not more rapid
What happens to your respiratory system when at a high altitude?
increase minute respiratory volume.. gradual changes - well tolerated ; sudden changes lead to mountain sickness