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184 Cards in this Set

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What happened to Italy after Charlemagne's death?
It fell into a state of feudal anarachy.
True or False?: Several of Charlemagne's descendants held the title of "Emperor of the Romans" or "Holy Roman Emperor" after Charlemagne's death.
True, but it stopped later
Who did the great feudal lords in Germany elect as king who was a powerful and forceful ruler?
Otto I or Otto the Great
Who begged for Otto's help in his struggle with the Roman nobles?
Pope John XIII
Otto supported the pope, who crowned him "Emperor of the Romans". Otto later made his own secretary pope, and for the next ___ years, ____ chose the popes.
40; German kings
Who ruled a larger area: Otto or Charlemagne?
Charlemagne
What was Otto's empire called? How long did it last?
the Holy Roman Empire; centuries
How long did the unique relationship between Germany and Italy last that caused great harm to both regions?
800 years
Under which emperor did the Holy Roman Empire reach a high point?
Emperor Henry III
True or false?: Henry regarded the church a branch of the royal government that should do what the emperor expected.
True
What unique event happened during Henry's reign?
Three different men claimed to be pope. Henry III deposed these three and had a German elected to the papacy. He then chose the next three popes.
Who was Henry III's son?
Emperor Henry IV
How old was Henry IV when Henry III (his father) died?
6 years
Who became pope once Henry IV became old enough to rule?
Gregory VII
True or false?: Greogory VII and Henry IV were good friends.
False
What issue did Henry IV and Gregory VII disagree on?
lay investiture; Henry IV believed he had the right to appoint bishops within the Holy Roman Empire; Gregory excommunicated him and released all of Henry's subjects from their oaths of alliagance and told them to elect another emperor
What did Henry IV do in response to his struggle with Pope Gregory VII?
fearing rebellion, he asked the pope for mercy
Where did Henry IV set off to meet Greogory VII at?
the castle of Canossa
What was the most dangerous part of Henry IV's journey to the castle of Canossa?
the descent down the ice-covered jagged peaks
What were the makeshift slides that the queen and her attendants sat on while slipping and sliding down the ice-covered jagged peaks made of?
oxen skins
What happened to the horses during Henry IV's journey to meet Gregory VII?
Some rode on makeshift slides down the icy peaks while others were dragged across the ice
How long did Henry IV suffer in the freezing weather waiting to enter the castle of Canossa?
three days
What did Gregory VII do to Henry IV after he waiting in the freezing weather for 3 days?
He let him in and after Henry IV agreed to several conditions of his forgiveness, Gregory absolved his excommunication
Which agreement made it so that the emperor could grant only land and secular powers to church officials, the church officals could elect bishops and grant them their spiritual power, and the emperor couldn't influence the elections? Where was this agreement made?
the Concordat of Worms; the German City of Worms
Which German emperor mentioned in the book was too interested in Italy to make an effort to unite the emperor?
Frederick I or Frederick Barbarossa (meaning "Frederick the Red Beard")
What did Frederick I think would make him a very rich ruler?
capturing the rich city-states of Lombard that had become increasingly independent trade centers
Which one of these city-states refused to receive Frederick I's representative?
Milan
What did Frederick I do in response to Milan's rejecting his representative?
he captured the city, destroyed it, and drove out its people
Other Lombard city-states (in addition to Milan), aided by the pope, united to form what league?
the Lombard League
Which pope led the papacy to the height of its prestige and power?
Innocent III
True or false?: Pope Innocent III was a learned and inteligent man.
True; he wrote books about law, theology, and Christian discipline
True or false?: Pope Innocent III respected emperors and kings and let them have their power.
false; he thought they were servants of the church and that he had the right to settle all political and religious problems
What did Pope Innocent III do in a quarrel with King John?
he placed England under interdict
What did John do to have the interdict that Pope Innocent III placed on England removed?
become the pope's vassal and pay money every year to Rome
True or false?: Pope Innocent III overthrew two kings in Germany and put his own choices on the throne.
True
True or false?: Germany and Italy eventually united.
false; Fredrick II and earlier emperors attempted but failed to unite them
What is one of the earliest and best-known epic poems of medieval Europe?
the Song of Roland
Which place that Jesus had lived and taught at did the Christians during the Middle Ages regard as the Holy Land?
Palestine
True or False?: Christians and Jews were not allowed to live in Palestine.
false; they were allowed as long as they paid their taxes and observed other regulations
Which warlike people were from central Asia, had adopted the Muslim faith, conquered Palestine, and attacked Asia Minor?
the Seljuk Turks
What did the Byzantine emperor do when the Turks threatened the capital city of Constantinople?
he appealed to the pope in Rome
Which pope responded to the call to regain the Holy Land of Palestine from the Muslims?
Pope Urban II
Where did Pope Urban II have a meeting to discuss the regaining of Palestine?
Clermont, France
Urban's plea fired his listeners with enthusiasm, and they joined in one mighty cry, "_____________!"
God wills it!
What were those that joined the expeditions to regain the holy land of Palestine called? Where did this name originate from?
crusaders; from the Latin word cruciata meaning "marked with a cross"
What did the crusaders sew on their garments?
a cross of cloth
What were the expeditions to regain the Holy land called?
the Crusades
True or false?: Those who died on a Crusade were said to go straight to heaven.
true
What kind of benefits did the crusades offer the crusaders?
Merchants would make money; the pope promised heavenly and earthly rewards, those that died went to heaven, the pope promised church protection of the crusader's property and family during their absence; debtors would lose their debt; criminals were relieved from crimes
How many armies of French and Norman nobles led the First Crusade?
three
What did the Byzantine emperor do when the three armies headed towards Constantinople?
he feated they would capture and plunder it so they let the crusaders pass
What was a major cause of suffering for the crusaders of the First Crusade?
the heat
As the crusaders marched down the seacoast towards Palestine on the First Crusade, fleets of ships from which two Italian cities brought reinforcements and supplies?
Genoa and Pisa
When the crusaders of the First Crusade captured Jerusalem after a short battle, what did they do to the Muslim inhabitants?
they slaughtered them
One leader wrote to the pope that his horse's legs had been _________ to the knees from riding among the __________________ .
bloodstained; bodies of the dead Muslims; (refers to the capture of Jerusalem during the first Crusade)
What were the four small states that the crusaders set up in the Middle East?
the County of Edessa; the Principality of Antioch; the county of Tripoli; and the Kingdom of Jerusalem
True or false?: After the four small states were set up by the crusaders of the First Crusade, the Christians and Muslims lived close together and grew to respect each other.
true
What led to the Second Crusade?
the Turks recapturing the important city of Edessa and threatening the Kingdom of Jerusalem
Who led the armies of the Second Crusade?
King Louis VII of France and the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III
When did the forces of King Louis VII and Conrad III join?
when they reached Damascus, which the Turks held
What was the result of the Second Crusade?
The two armies failed to capture Damascus and after two years, they returned to Europe in disgrace
What sparked the Third Crusade?
the news that the Muslim leader Saladin recaptured Jerusalem
What is another name for the Third Crusade?
the "Crusade of the Kings"
Which three people were the leaders of the Third Crusade?
King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, King Philip Augustus of France, and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire
What happened to Frederick Barbarossa on his way to the Holy Land?
He drowned and most of his army turned back.
What happened to Philip Augustus during the Third Crusade?
he quarreled with Philip and took his army home to seize English lands in France
What happened to Richard the Lion-Hearted during the Third Crusade?
He might have gained the whole Kingdom of Jerusalem by diplomacy several times, but preferred military attempts. He made no significant gains.
How many Christians and Muslims died as a result of the Third Crusade?
300,000
Who started the Fourth Crusade?
Pope Innocent III
Which Christian city lies on the Adriatic coast?
Zara
Which city-state provided for transportation and persuaded crusaders to attack it's commercial rival of Zara?
Venice
What did Pope Innocent III do when the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade captured Zara?
he excommunicated the entire army for attacking a Christian city
What was the next step of the fourth crusade?
to attack Constantinople
What happened to Constantinople in the Fourth Crousade?
It was looted by crusaders. The Byzantines regained it after 50 years, but they never regained their strenth. The Byzantine empire fell when the Turks seized Constantinople.
What was the crusade in which a group of young children tried to regain the holy land called?
the Children's crusade
Where did those who were in the Children's Crusade and who weren't turned back by the pope go?
to Marseilles in France
What happened to the Children's Crusade?
The children who reached Marseilles were tricked into boarding ships that carried them off to be sold to Muslim slave traders.
At the end of the crusades, the Muslisms captured which last Christian strong-hold?
Acre
Which crusade was the only crusade that isn't considered a failure?
the first
Possible essay question: What new technology was developed during the crusades?
the crossbow- a sophisticated bow and arrow held horizontally and fired by pulling a trigger, carrier pigeons, new siege tactics such as undermining walls and using catapults to hurl stones, knowledge of gunpowder from the Muslims who probably got their knowledge from the Chinese
What political affect did the crusades have?
They increased the power of kings and decreased the power of feudal lords in Europe. The church assumed more power because of its role in the crusades.
What did the nobles do during the crusades?
either they died fighting, or they sold their political liberties in order to raise money to join the crusade
How did the Crusades affect the role of women?
They managed estates for their absent husbands
What products did the Europeans discover from the Middle East?
rice, sugar, lemons, apricots, and melons
What were the two forms of cotton cloth that were introduced into Europe? Where were these from?
muslin (cloth of Mosul, a city in Persia); damask (cloth of Damascus)
What happened to trade in western Europe after the 400s? Why?
It died out; Manors became self-sufficient. Towns and cities that depended on traded died down, some of which disappeared.
What obstacles did those that wanted to trade face?
little money, poor roads, and few bridges; feudal lords charged tolls for use of roads on their territories; thieves and pirates made travel dangerous
What did the church do that made trade even more difficult?
it insisted on a just price that stopped the seller from large profits
The church prohibited the purchase of articles for resale at higher prices. What is this called?
retail selling
The church also prohibited the charging of interest on loans. What is this called?
usury
In which country did trade begin to revive?
Italy
Which Italian city-states won trading rights in which middle-eastern locations?
Venice, Genoa, Pisa; Constantinople, Syria, Palestine, Northern Africa
Which traders regularly traveled to the Black Sea, on to Constantinople to collect goods which they transported to northern Europe?
the Vikings from Kiev, in what's now Ukraine
Which region was the meeting point of trade routes and had the chief product of fine woolen cloth that made it the textile headquarters of Europe?
Flanders with cities such as Ghent and Bruges
Which three cities became the most important commercial cities onthe North and Baltic seas?
Hamburg, Lubeck (the "u" in Lubeck has two dots above it), and Bremen
Hamburg, Lubeck, and Bremen combined to form what league?
Hanseatic League
How many cities eventually became part of the Hanseatic League?
more than 70
What were the trading posts of the Hanseatic League?
Flanders, Scandinavia, England, and Russia
What happened to any member that failed to abide by the agreements of the Hanseatic League?
they lost their trading privileges; the league stopped all shipment of goods to that country; the league members sometimes waged small wars in order to regain rights
Which products did the Crusades cause a great increase in demand for?
spices, medicines, perfumes, dyes, and precious gems from Asia
What goods came from the Middle East during the Crusades?
textiles, rugs, grain, and fruit
What manufactured goods were traded during the Crusades?
silk, cotton, linen favrics, gold, silver, and ivory art objects
What products did the Baltic region supply?
fur, timber, fish, and grain
What goods were produced in Spain?
wine, oil, leather, weapons, and armor
What did villages do to give merchants a place to exchange goods?
set up fairs for the sale of imported goods; they became wealthy by charging fees on the merchandise sold
What is the region in northeastern France that lay directly along the trade route between Italy and northern Europe and held the most important and best-known fairs?
Champagne
How many fairs were held each year at the region of Champagne? How long did each fair last?
six; four to seven weeks
What is the term for an economy in which goods and services are exchanged for other goods and services without the use of money?
barter economy
What else happened in fairs?
jugglers, clowns, and musicians entertained the crowd
True or false?: a barter economy worked well in Champagne.
false
What were the three developments that resulted from the revival of European trade?
a manufacturing system, a banking system, and the practice of investing capital
What is the term for the system in which manufacturing took place in workers' homes rather than in a shop or factory?
the domestic system
Possible essay question: Describe the woolen industry in a domestic system.
An individual would buy wool and distribute it to several workers. They'd do a particular job such as spinning, weaving, or dyeing for a certain pay. Then the individual would collect the finished wool and sell it for the highest price possible.
Where does the word "bank" come from?
the Italian word banca, meaning the "money changer's table"
What was the most important service early bankers performed?
lending money
True or false?: Because the Christian Church forbade usury (the charging of interest for moneylending), Buddhists had to do much of the moneylending.
false; the Jews did much of the moneylending, also Christians became involved in moneylending later
Christian moneylenders eased the transfer of funds by developing special notes. What were these special notes called?
letters of credit
What is the term for wealth earned, saved, and invested in order to produce profits?
capital
What is the term for an economy in which land, labor, and capital are controlled by individuals?
a market economy
True or false?: It was the market economy that formed the basis of the modern communist system.
false; replace communist with capitalist
What is the first of the four basic rights that people in a European town were assured?
Freedom- No matter what their irth or origin, people who lived in a town had a chance to become free. If officials did not challenge them for a year and a day, they became free. This broke all ties to a manor or manor lord. A serf who escaped to a town could thus become free.
What is the second of the four rights of the people in European towns?
Exempt status- Inhabitants of towns were exempt, or free, from having to perform any services on the manor.
What is the third of the four basic rights given to people in European cities?
Town justice- Towns had their own courts, made up of prominent citizens familiar with local customs, which tried cases involving townspeople.
What is the fourth basic right assured to the people of European cities?
commercial privileges- Townspeople had the right to sell goods freely in the town market and to charge tolls to all outsiders trading there.
What did medieval merchants do in response to the danger in travel?
They assembled convoys- groups that travel together for safety
In each town a merchant guild gained a __________ - the sole right to trade there.
monopoly
Describe the function of a merchant guild.
Foreign merchants could not trade in the town where another guild stayed withotu paying a fee. The guild set standards for their goods. They acted as a charitable organization. They made loans to members and looked after those in trouble. They supported widows and children of deceased members.
Describe the function of the craft guilds.
It included all people engaged in one particular craft, such as shoemaking or weaving. They regulated wages and set hours and conditions of labor. They set prices and conditions for selling goods, disciplined workers, sooked after ill or disabled members, and supervised training. A master worker, or fully accepted owrker, had to be male.
What is the first stage a candidate going for membership into a guild had to go through? What does the candidate do during this time?
apprentice; a boy's parents pay a hefty price and give him to a master worker to learn the trade. He lived at the master's home. The master took care of the boy while the boy respected and helped the master and his craft. The period of apprenticeship varied from 3 to 12 years, the boy started at age 7
What is the second step for a boy to receive membership into a craft? Describe what the boy does in this stage.
journeyman- the boy is a skilled craftperson and is paid.
In in a guild, what did a journeyman have to do to become a regular member?
he submits proof of his skill to his master. The "masterpiece" or piece of work is judged. If the guild master approved of the work, the journeyman could open a shop of his own.
True or false?: Towards the end of the Middle Ages, the cross from a journeyman to a master became easier.
False; it became harder
Whta did the son of a master have to do to become a master?
often he inherited the business and position without going through the step
How many people did medieval towns and cities have?
5,000 to 10,000
What was Paris' estimated population in the 1300s?
80,000
Which two cities were considered huge, with 50,000 inhabitants each?
Ghent and Bruges
How many people did London have at the time?
35,000
How many stories did the average medieval building have?
five or six
How one story in a building designed different than the others and why?
each story projected out a little farther than the one below; to save space
When were the gutters in a medieval city cleaned?
when it rained
True or false?: The medieval police was too week to protect every corner of the medieval cities.
false; there was no police
What caused the number of serfs to decline?
he increasing number of people, changes in agricultural methods, and a devestating epidemic
What is another name for the bubonic plague?
the Black Death
How did the Black Death enter Italy?
it was brought to Genoa, Italy by infected rats on board a merchant ship
What were the two forms in which the plague was transmitted to humans?
the bubonic plague and the pneumonic plague
How did the bubonic plague work and what were its symptoms?
fleas bit infected rats and then bit people who got the disease; infected lymph glands acoompanied by painful swelling and high fever, black spots
How was the pneumonic plague spread?
directly from one person to the other
How were bodies disposed of?
they were loaded on carts and dumped in common graves outside the town
What is the estimated death toll of the Black Death?
one-third of Europe; 75 million people worldwide; one-third of England; Europe didn't recover for 100 years
What language became the written language of western Europe following the collapse of the Roman Empire?
Latin
What language did the common people use during the Middle Ages?
vernacular languages- "everyday" speech that varied from place to place
Vernacular languages include which modern languages?
English, Italian, French, German, and Spanish
What term describes the people whose songs were one of the first forms of vernacular literature and who spread vernacular languages by traveling and singing?
troubadours
What's another form of vernacular literature?
national epic
What was a popular English epic the became popular throughout Europe about?
King Arthur and his Knights of the Round table
Name a national epic of France. Name a national epic of the Germans.
france- Song of Roland
Germans- Nibelungenlied, a legend of how the hero Siegfried captured a magic treasure guarded by a dragon
What is the French term for short comic stores written in rhymed verse and that mocked the lofty idealf of chivalry, ridiculed human foolishness, and criticized the clergy in particular?
fabliaux
Name an animal story or fable that grew increasingly popular among the more worldly and cynical people.
Reynard the Fox
What is the term for a mystery play and form of vernacular literature and that is a short drama on religious or biblical subjects.
a miracle play
What is the name of one miracle play that tells of Noah's ark?
Noye's Fludde (Noah's Flood)
Which writer wrote his poetry in the Italian dialect of his native Tuscany whih made it the written language of Italy and made him considered the father of modern Italian.
Dante Alighieri
What s Dante's greatest work?
The Divine Comedy, in which Dante passes through hell, purgatory, and heaven while buided by the Roman poet Virgil
________ wrote his _______________ in the form of a series of stories told by a group of pilgrims on their way to ______________'s shrine in __________.
Geoffrey Chaucer; Canterbury Tales; Thomas Becket; Canterbury
Which dialect of English did Chaucer used?
the Midland dialect that became the forerunner of modern English because of him
What was a guild of teachers and students called? What does this word mean?
a universitas, a Latin word meaning "an association of people", origin of the word "university"
Which four great universities developed? What did they teach?
the two in Paris and at Oxford which specialized in theology (study of religious doctrine) and the liberal arts (Latin grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music; University of Bologna in Italy, taught Roman law and canon (church) law; University at Salerno in Italy, taught medicine
In medieval universities, which degree showed that a student has finished the apprenticeship?
the degree of bachelor of arts
Which degree showed that a person has the knowledge and permission to teach?
the degree of master of arts
What was the name of a ceremony in which a student was admitted to the guild of teachers?
commencement
What is the term for the attempt of medieval philosophers to reconcile early church writers' faith and Aristotle's reason?
scholasticism
Who wrote the book that raised quesions about church doctrine?
Peter Abelard
What book did Abelard write? What does this translate to?
Sic et Non; Yes and No
What did Abelard do in his book Sic et Non?
He raised many questions. After each question, he placed his opinions of scripture from the Bible, decrees of the popes, and tghe writings of church philosophers. Many of these opinions conflicted with each other.
What was Abelard's motto?
"By doubting we come to inquiry, and by inquiring we perceive the truth."
Who was probably the greatest of all medieval philosophers?
Thomas Aquinas, a Dominican friar
What is Aquinas' principal work?
Summa Theologica, which summariezes Christian thought at that time. He tried to prove each point of chruch doctrine using logic. Today, it forms the bases for teachings of thoeology in Roman Catholic schools
Classic writings from which two scientists form the basis of much medieval science?
Galen and Ptolemy
Which two subjects received serious attention in the West?
mathematics and optics (the study of light)
Why did Europeans think mathematics is important? Why did they think optics is important?
They thought math was important because of its use in counting, calendars, trade, and measuring; optics because of their belief that God's influence was carried by light
What do you call the style of architecture that uses arches, domes , and low horizontal lines?
Romanesque (meaning "similar to the Romans")
True of false?: Romanesque buildings had many windows.
False, the enormous wait of the roof made it so it had few windows, which made it very dark
What architectural technique did Gothic churches have that alowed it to have large windows?
flying buttresses
What did the pointed arches, tall spires, and high walls on Gothic churches seem to do?
reach towards heaven
Where were the Gothic churches located and what were they used for?
near the growing town; religious pageants and miracle plays